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Federated learning allows multiple users to collaboratively train a shared classification model while preserving data privacy. This approach, where model updates are aggregated by a central server, was shown to be vulnerable to poisoning backdoor attacks : a malicious user can alter the shared model to arbitrarily classify specific inputs from a given class. In this article, we analyze the effects of backdoor attacks on federated meta-learning , where users train a model that can be adapted to different sets of output classes using only a few examples. While the ability to adapt could, in principle, make federated learning frameworks more robust to backdoor attacks (when new training examples are benign), we find that even one-shot attacks can be very successful and persist after additional training. To address these vulnerabilities, we propose a defense mechanism inspired by matching networks , where the class of an input is predicted from the similarity of its features with a support set of labeled examples. By removing the decision logic from the model shared with the federation, the success and persistence of backdoor attacks are greatly reduced.Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 31, 2023
Deep-n-Cheap: An Automated Efficient and Extensible Search Framework for Cost-Effective Deep LearningArtificial neural networks (NNs) in deep learning systems are critical drivers of emerging technologies such as computer vision, text classification, and natural language processing. Fundamental to their success is the development of accurate and efficient NN models. In this article, we report our work on Deep-n-Cheap—an open-source automated machine learning (AutoML) search framework for deep learning models. The search includes both architecture and training hyperparameters and supports convolutional neural networks and multi-layer perceptrons, applicable to multiple domains. Our framework is targeted for deployment on both benchmark and custom datasets, and as a result, offers a greater degree of search space customizability as compared to a more limited search over only pre-existing models from literature. We also introduce the technique of ‘search transfer’, which demonstrates the generalization capabilities of the models found by our framework to multiple datasets. Deep-n-Cheap includes a user-customizable complexity penalty which trades off performance with training time or number of parameters. Specifically, our framework can find models with performance comparable to state-of-the- art while taking 1–2 orders of magnitude less time to train than models from other AutoML and model search frameworks. Additionally, we investigate and develop insight into the search process that should aid future developmentmore »