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  1. Abstract

    We present results from a systematic search for broad (≥ 400 km s−1) Hαemission in integral field spectroscopy data cubes of ∼1200 nearby galaxies obtained with PMAS and MUSE. We found 19 unique regions that pass our quality cuts, four of which match the locations of previously discovered supernovae (SNe): one Type IIP and three Type IIn, including the well-known SN 2005ip. We suggest that these objects are young Supernova remnants (SNRs), with bright and broad Hαemission powered by the interaction between the SN ejecta and dense circumstellar material. The stellar ages measured at the locations of these SNR candidates are systematically lower by about 0.5 dex than those measured at the locations of core-collapse (CC) SNe, implying that their progenitors might be shorter lived and therefore more massive than a typical CCSN progenitor. The methods laid out in this work open a new window into the study of nearby SNe with integral field spectroscopy.

     
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  2. Abstract

    The dynamics and spectral characteristics of supernova ejecta reveal details of the supernova energetics, explosive nucleosynthesis, and evolution of the progenitor. However, in practice, this important diagnostic information is only derived from CCD-resolution X-ray spectra of shock-heated material. If the spectra were to be observed at higher resolution, then important clues to the explosion energetics would be obvious through measurements of bulk Doppler motions and turbulence in the ejecta. Likewise, the unshocked ejecta in supernovae and young remnants are responsible for obscuring the emission from ejecta on the back side of the remnant. In light of these important effects, we present line-of-sight spectral maps of core-collapse supernova remnant models. We explore the bulk Doppler broadening of spectral lines, including line-of-sight effects. We also explore the time-dependent absorption from both shocked and unshocked ejecta. Finally, we discuss how future X-ray missions such as XRISM and Athena will be able to resolve these effects in nearby and extragalactic supernovae and their remnants.

     
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  3. Abstract We created the APOGEE-GALEX-Gaia catalog to study white dwarf (WD) binaries. This database aims to create a minimally biased sample of WD binary systems identified from a combination of GALEX, Gaia, and APOGEE data to increase the number of WD binaries with orbital parameters and chemical compositions. We identify 3414 sources as WD binary candidates, with nondegenerate companions of spectral types between F and M, including main-sequence stars, main-sequence binaries, subgiants, sub-subgiants, red giants, and red clump stars. Among our findings are (a) a total of 1806 systems having inferred WD radii R < 25 R ⊕ , which constitute a more reliable group of WD binary candidates within the main sample; (b) a difference in the metallicity distribution function between WD binary candidates and the control sample of most luminous giants ( M H < −3.0); (c) the existence of a population of sub-subgiants with WD companions; (d) evidence for shorter periods in binaries that contain WDs compared to those that do not, as shown by the cumulative distributions of APOGEE radial velocity shifts; (e) evidence for systemic orbital evolution in a sample of 252 WD binaries with orbital periods, based on differences in the period distribution between systems with red clump, main-sequence binary, and sub-subgiant companions and systems with main-sequence or red giant companions; and (f) evidence for chemical enrichment during common envelope (CE) evolution, shown by lower metallicities in wide WD binary candidates ( P > 100 days) compared to post-CE ( P < 100 days) WD binary candidates. 
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  4. Abstract Momentum feedback from isolated supernova remnants (SNRs) have been increasingly recognized by modern cosmological simulations as a resolution-independent means to implement the effects of feedback in galaxies, such as turbulence and winds. However, the integrated momentum yield from SNRs is uncertain due to the effects of SN clustering and interstellar medium (ISM) inhomogeneities. In this paper, we use spatially resolved observations of the prominent 10 kpc star-forming ring of M31 to test models of mass-weighted ISM turbulence driven by momentum feedback from isolated, nonoverlapping SNRs. We use a detailed stellar age distribution (SAD) map from the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury survey, observationally constrained SN delay-time distributions, and maps of the atomic and molecular hydrogen to estimate the mass-weighted velocity dispersion using the Martizzi et al. ISM turbulence model. Our estimates are within a factor of two of the observed mass-weighted velocity dispersion in most of the ring, but exceed observations at densities ≲0.2 cm −3 and SN rates >2.1 × 10 −4 SN yr −1 kpc −2 , even after accounting for plausible variations in SAD models and ISM scale height assumptions. We conclude that at high SN rates the momentum deposited is most likely suppressed by the nonlinear effects of SN clustering, while at low densities, SNRs reach pressure equilibrium before the cooling phase. These corrections should be introduced in models of momentum-driven feedback and ISM turbulence. 
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  5. ABSTRACT

    We present new MMT/Hectochelle spectroscopic measurements for 257 stars observed along the line of sight to the ultrafaint dwarf galaxy Triangulum II (Tri II). Combining results from previous Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy, we obtain a sample that includes 16 likely members of Tri II, with up to 10 independent redshift measurements per star. To this multi-epoch kinematic data set, we apply methodology that we develop in order to infer binary orbital parameters from sparsely sampled radial velocity curves with as few as two epochs. For a previously identified (spatially unresolved) binary system in Tri II, we infer an orbital solution with period $296.0_{-3.3}^{+3.8} \rm ~ d$, semimajor axis $1.12^{+0.41}_{-0.24}\rm ~au$, and systemic velocity $-380.0 \pm 1.7 \rm ~km ~s^{-1}$ that we then use in the analysis of Tri II’s internal kinematics. Despite this improvement in the modelling of binary star systems, the current data remain insufficient to resolve the velocity dispersion of Tri II. We instead find a 95 per cent confidence upper limit of $\sigma _{v} \lesssim 3.4 \rm ~km~s^{-1}$.

     
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  6. null (Ed.)
  7. Abstract

    We present an analysis of ground-based and JWST observations of SN 2022pul, a peculiar “03fg-like” (or “super-Chandrasekhar”) Type Ia supernova (SN Ia), in the nebular phase at 338 days postexplosion. Our combined spectrum continuously covers 0.4–14μm and includes the first mid-infrared spectrum of a 03fg-like SN Ia. Compared to normal SN Ia 2021aefx, SN 2022pul exhibits a lower mean ionization state, asymmetric emission-line profiles, stronger emission from the intermediate-mass elements (IMEs) argon and calcium, weaker emission from iron-group elements (IGEs), and the first unambiguous detection of neon in a SN Ia. A strong, broad, centrally peaked [Neii] line at 12.81μm was previously predicted as a hallmark of “violent merger” SN Ia models, where dynamical interaction between two sub-MChwhite dwarfs (WDs) causes disruption of the lower-mass WD and detonation of the other. The violent merger scenario was already a leading hypothesis for 03fg-like SNe Ia; in SN 2022pul it can explain the large-scale ejecta asymmetries seen between the IMEs and IGEs and the central location of narrow oxygen and broad neon. We modify extant models to add clumping of the ejecta to reproduce the optical iron emission better, and add mass in the innermost region (<2000 km s−1) to account for the observed narrow [Oi]λλ6300, 6364 emission. A violent WD–WD merger explains many of the observations of SN 2022pul, and our results favor this model interpretation for the subclass of 03fg-like SNe Ia.

     
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  8. null (Ed.)
    Abstract We present a search for close, unresolved companions in a subset of spatially resolved Gaia wide binaries containing main-sequence stars within 200 pc of the Sun, utilizing the APOGEE–Gaia Wide Binary Catalog. A catalog of 37 wide binaries was created by selecting pairs of stars with nearly identical Gaia positions, parallaxes, and proper motions, and then confirming candidates to be gravitationally-bound pairs using APOGEE radial velocities. We identify close, unresolved stellar and substellar candidate companions in these multiple systems using (1) the Gaia binary main-sequence and (2) observed periodic radial velocity variations in APOGEE measurements due to the influence of a close substellar-mass companion. The studied wide binary pairs reveal a total of four stellar-mass close companions in four different wide binaries, and four substellar-mass close companion candidates in two wide binaries. The latter are therefore quadruple systems, with one substellar mass companion orbiting each wide binary component in an S-type orbit. Taken at face value, these candidate systems represent an enhancement of an order of magnitude over the expected occurrence rate of ∼2 per cent of stars having substellar companions >2 MJup within ∼100 day orbits; we discuss implications and possible explanations for this result. Finally, we compare chemical differences between the components of the wide binaries and the components of the candidate higher-order systems and find that any chemical influence or correlation due to the presence of close companions to wide binary stars is not discernible. 
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  9. Abstract

    We use time-resolved spectra from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) to examine the distribution of radial velocity (RV) variations in 249 stars identified as members of the Sagittarius (Sgr) dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxy by Hayes et al. We select Milky Way (MW) stars that have stellar parameters (log(g),Teff, and [Fe/H] ) similar to those of the Sagittarius members by means of a k-d tree of dimension 3. We find that the shape of the distribution of RV shifts in Sgr dSph stars is similar to that measured in their MW analogs, but the total fraction of RV variable stars in the Sgr dSph is larger by a factor of ∼2. After ruling out other explanations for this difference, we conclude that the fraction of close binaries in the Sgr dSph is intrinsically higher than in the MW. We discuss the implications of this result for the physical processes leading to the formation of close binaries in dwarf spheroidal and spiral galaxies.

     
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  10. ABSTRACT

    We measure rotational broadening in spectra taken by the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) survey to characterize the relationship between stellar multiplicity and rotation. We create a sample of 2786 giants and 24 496 dwarfs with stellar parameters and multiple radial velocities from the APOGEE pipeline, projected rotation speeds vsin i determined from our own pipeline, and distances, masses, and ages measured by Sanders & Das. We use the statistical distribution of the maximum shift in the radial velocities, ΔRVmax, as a proxy for the close binary fraction to explore the interplay between stellar evolution, rotation, and multiplicity. Assuming that the minimum orbital period allowed is the critical period for Roche Lobe overflow and rotational synchronization, we calculate theoretical upper limits on expected vsin i and ΔRVmax values. These expectations agree with the positive correlation between the maximum ΔRVmax and vsin i values observed in our sample as a function of log(g). We find that the fast rotators in our sample have a high occurrence of short-period [log(P/d) ≲ 4] companions. We also find that old, rapidly rotating main-sequence stars have larger completeness-corrected close binary fractions than their younger peers. Furthermore, rapidly rotating stars with large ΔRVmax consistently show differences of 1–10 Gyr between the predicted gyrochronological and measured isochronal ages. These results point towards a link between rapid rotation and close binarity through tidal interactions. We conclude that stellar rotation is strongly correlated with stellar multiplicity in the field, and caution should be taken in the application of gyrochronology relations to cool stars.

     
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