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  1. Chechik, M. ; Katoen, JP. ; Leucker, M. (Ed.)
    Efficient verification algorithms for neural networks often depend on various abstract domains such as intervals, zonotopes, and linear star sets. The choice of the abstract domain presents an expressiveness vs. scalability trade-off: simpler domains are less precise but yield faster algorithms. This paper investigates the octatope abstract domain in the context of neural net verification. Octatopes are affine transformations of n-dimensional octagons—sets of unit-two-variable-per-inequality (UTVPI) constraints. Octatopes generalize the idea of zonotopes which can be viewed as an affine transformation of a box. On the other hand, octatopes can be considered as a restriction of linear star set, which are affine transformations of arbitrary H-Polytopes. This distinction places octatopes firmly between zonotopes and star sets in their expressive power, but what about the efficiency of decision procedures? An important analysis problem for neural networks is the exact range computation problem that asks to compute the exact set of possible outputs given a set of possible inputs. For this, three computational procedures are needed: 1) optimization of a linear cost function; 2) affine mapping; and 3) over-approximating the intersection with a half-space. While zonotopes allow an efficient solution for these approaches, star sets solves these procedures via linear programming. We show that these operations are faster for octatopes than the more expressive linear star sets. For octatopes, we reduce these problems to min-cost flow problems, which can be solved in strongly polynomial time using the Out-of-Kilter algorithm. Evaluating exact range computation on several ACAS Xu neural network benchmarks, we find that octatopes show promise as a practical abstract domain for neural network verification. 
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  2. Task graphs have been studied for decades as a foundation for scheduling irregular parallel applications and incorporated in many programming models including OpenMP. While many high-performance parallel libraries are based on task graphs, they also have additional scheduling requirements, such as synchronization within inner levels of data parallelism and internal blocking communications. In this paper, we extend task-graph scheduling to support efficient synchronization and communication within tasks. Compared to past work, our scheduler avoids deadlock and oversubscription of worker threads, and refines victim selection to increase the overlap of sibling tasks. To the best of our knowledge, our approach is the first to combine gang-scheduling and work-stealing in a single runtime. Our approach has been evaluated on the SLATE high-performance linear algebra library. Relative to the LLVM OMP runtime, our runtime demonstrates performance improvements of up to 13.82%, 15.2%, and 36.94% for LU, QR, and Cholesky, respectively, evaluated across different configurations related to matrix size, number of nodes, and use of CPUs vs GPUs 
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  3. null (Ed.)
    This paper introduces robustness verification for semantic segmentation neural networks (in short, semantic segmentation networks [SSNs]), building on and extending recent approaches for robustness verification of image classification neural networks. Despite recent progress in developing verification methods for specifications such as local adversarial robustness in deep neural networks (DNNs) in terms of scalability, precision, and applicability to different network architectures, layers, and activation functions, robustness verification of semantic segmentation has not yet been considered. We address this limitation by developing and applying new robustness analysis methods for several segmentation neural network architectures, specifically by addressing reachability analysis of up-sampling layers, such as transposed convolution and dilated convolution. We consider several definitions of robustness for segmentation, such as the percentage of pixels in the output that can be proven robust under different adversarial perturbations, and a robust variant of intersection-over-union (IoU), the typical performance evaluation measure for segmentation tasks. Our approach is based on a new relaxed reachability method, allowing users to select the percentage of a number of linear programming problems (LPs) to solve when constructing the reachable set, through a relaxation factor percentage. The approach is implemented within NNV, then applied and evaluated on segmentation datasets, such as a multi-digit variant of MNIST known as M2NIST. Thorough experiments show that by using transposed convolution for up-sampling and average-pooling for down-sampling, combined with minimizing the number of ReLU layers in the SSNs, we can obtain SSNs with not only high accuracy (IoU), but also that are more robust to adversarial attacks and amenable to verification. Additionally, using our new relaxed reachability method, we can significantly reduce the verification time for neural networks whose ReLU layers dominate the total analysis time, even in classification tasks. 
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