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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  2. Ruiter, Nicole V. ; Byram, Brett C. (Ed.)
  3. Abstract

    Trans-arterial chemoembolization (TACE) is an important yet variably effective treatment for management of hepatic malignancies. Lack of response can be in part due to inability to assess treatment adequacy in real-time. Gold-standard contrast enhanced computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, although effective, suffer from treatment-induced artifacts that prevent early treatment evaluation. Non-contrast ultrasound is a potential solution but has historically been ineffective at detecting treatment response. Here, we propose non-contrast ultrasound with recent perfusion-focused advancements as a tool for immediate evaluation of TACE. We demonstrate initial feasibility in an 11-subject pilot study. Treatment-induced changes in tumor perfusion are detected best when combining adaptive demodulation (AD) and singular value decomposition (SVD) techniques. Using a 0.5 s (300-sample) ensemble size, AD + SVD resulted in a 7.42 dB median decrease in tumor power after TACE compared to only a 0.06 dB median decrease with conventional methods.

  4. (Early Access) Effective tissue clutter filtering is critical for non-contrast ultrasound imaging of slow blood flow in small vessels. Independent component analysis (ICA) has been considered by other groups for ultrasound clutter filtering in the past and was shown to be superior to principal component analysis (PCA)-based methods. However, it has not been considered specifically for slow flow applications or revisited since the onset of other slow flow-focused advancements in beamforming and tissue filtering, namely angled plane wave beamforming and full spatiotemporal singular value decomposition (SVD) (i.e., PCA-based) tissue filtering. In this work, we aim to develop a full spatiotemporal ICA-based tissue filtering technique facilitated by plane wave applications and compare it to SVD filtering. We compare ICA and SVD filtering in terms of optimal image quality in simulations and phantoms as well as in terms of optimal correlation to ground truth blood signal in simulations. Additionally, we propose an adaptive blood independent component sorting and selection method. We show that optimal and adaptive ICA can consistently separate blood from tissue better than principal component analysis (PCA)-based methods using simulations and phantoms. Additionally we demonstrate initial in vivo feasibility in ultrasound data of a liver tumor.