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  1. We investigate knowledge retrieval with multi-modal queries, i.e. queries containing information split across image and text inputs, a challenging task that differs from previous work on cross-modal retrieval. We curate a new dataset called ReMuQ for benchmarking progress on this task. ReMuQ requires a system to retrieve knowledge from a large corpus by integrating contents from both text and image queries. We introduce a retriever model “ReViz” that can directly process input text and images to retrieve relevant knowledge in an end-to-end fashion without being dependent on intermediate modules such as object detectors or caption generators. We introduce a new pretraining task that is effective for learning knowledge retrieval with multimodal queries and also improves performance on downstream tasks. We demonstrate superior performance in retrieval on two datasets (ReMuQ and OK-VQA) under zero-shot settings as well as further improvements when finetuned on these datasets. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  2. Actions’ play a vital role in how humans interact with the world. Thus, autonomous agents that would assist us in everyday tasks also require the capability to perform ‘Reasoning about Actions & Change’ (RAC). This has been an important research direction in Artificial Intelligence (AI) in general, but the study of RAC with visual and linguistic inputs is relatively recent. The CLEVR_HYP is one such testbed for hypothetical vision-language reasoning with actions as the key focus. In this work, we propose a novel learning strategy that can improve reasoning about the effects of actions. We implement an encoder-decoder architecture to learn the representation of actions as vectors. We combine the aforementioned encoder-decoder architecture with existing modality parsers and a scene graph question answering model to evaluate our proposed system on the CLEVR_HYP dataset. We conduct thorough experiments to demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed approach and discuss its advantages over previous baselines in terms of performance, data efficiency, and generalization capability. 
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  3. null (Ed.)
    Most existing research on visual question answering (VQA) is limited to information explicitly present in an image or a video. In this paper, we take visual understanding to a higher level where systems are challenged to answer questions that involve mentally simulating the hypothetical consequences of performing specific actions in a given scenario. Towards that end, we formulate a vision-language question answering task based on the CLEVR (Johnson et. al., 2017) dataset. We then modify the best existing VQA methods and propose baseline solvers for this task. Finally, we motivate the development of better vision-language models by providing insights about the capability of diverse architectures to perform joint reasoning over image-text modality. Our dataset setup scripts and codes will be made publicly available at https://github.com/shailaja183/clevr_hyp. 
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  4. Zong, Chengqing ; Xia, Fei ; Li, Wenjie ; Navigli, Roberto (Ed.)
    Methodologies for training visual question answering (VQA) models assume the availability of datasets with human-annotated ImageQuestion-Answer (I-Q-A) triplets. This has led to heavy reliance on datasets and a lack of generalization to new types of questions and scenes. Linguistic priors along with biases and errors due to annotator subjectivity have been shown to percolate into VQA models trained on such samples. We study whether models can be trained without any human-annotated Q-A pairs, but only with images and their associated textual descriptions or captions. We present a method to train models with synthetic Q-A pairs generated procedurally from captions. Additionally, we demonstrate the efficacy of spatial-pyramid image patches as a simple but effective alternative to dense and costly object bounding box annotations used in existing VQA models. Our experiments on three VQA benchmarks demonstrate the efficacy of this weakly-supervised approach, especially on the VQA-CP challenge, which tests performance under changing linguistic priors. 
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  5. Moens, Marie-Francine ; Huang, Xuanjing ; Specia, Lucia ; Yih, Scott Wen-tau (Ed.)
    Knowledge-based visual question answering (VQA) requires answering questions with external knowledge in addition to the content of images. One dataset that is mostly used in evaluating knowledge-based VQA is OK-VQA, but it lacks a gold standard knowledge corpus for retrieval. Existing work leverage different knowledge bases (e.g., ConceptNet and Wikipedia) to obtain external knowledge. Because of varying knowledge bases, it is hard to fairly compare models’ performance. To address this issue, we collect a natural language knowledge base that can be used for any VQA system. Moreover, we propose a Visual Retriever-Reader pipeline to approach knowledge-based VQA. The visual retriever aims to retrieve relevant knowledge, and the visual reader seeks to predict answers based on given knowledge. We introduce various ways to retrieve knowledge using text and images and two reader styles: classification and extraction. Both the retriever and reader are trained with weak supervision. Our experimental results show that a good retriever can significantly improve the reader’s performance on the OK-VQA challenge. 
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  6. Merlo, Paola ; Tiedemann, Jorg ; Tsarfaty, Reut (Ed.)
    GQA (CITATION) is a dataset for real-world visual reasoning and compositional question answering. We found that many answers predicted by the best vision-language models on the GQA dataset do not match the ground-truth answer but still are semantically meaningful and correct in the given context. In fact, this is the case with most existing visual question answering (VQA) datasets where they assume only one ground-truth answer for each question. We propose Alternative Answer Sets (AAS) of ground-truth answers to address this limitation, which is created automatically using off-the-shelf NLP tools. We introduce a semantic metric based on AAS and modify top VQA solvers to support multiple plausible answers for a question. We implement this approach on the GQA dataset and show the performance improvements. 
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