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  1. Observational learning models seek to understand how distributed agents learn from observing the actions of others. In the basic model, agents seek to choose between two alternatives, where the underlying value of each alternative is the same for each agent. Agents do not know this value but only observe a noisy signal of the value and make their decision based on this signal and observations of other agents’ actions. Here, instead we consider a scenario in which the choices faced by an agent exhibit a negative externality so that value of a choice may decrease depending on the history of other agents selecting that choice. We study the learning behavior of Bayesian agents with such an externality and show that this can lead to very different outcomes compared to models without such an externality. 
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  2. We consider a model in which two competing wireless service providers with licensed spectrum may pool a portion of their spectrum to better exploit statistical multiplexing. Given an amount of pooled spectrum, the providers engage in Cournot competition. We study the impact of pooling spectrum on the outcome of this competition and show that the gains from multiplexing are dissipated due to the competition among the providers. 
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  3. In this paper, we study a fresh data acquisition problem to acquire fresh data and optimize the age-related performance when strategic data sources have private market information. We consider an information update system in which a destination acquires, and pays for, fresh data updates from a source. The destination incurs an age-related cost, modeled as a general increasing function of the age-of-information (AoI). The source is strategic and incurs a sampling cost, which is its private information and may not be truthfully reported to the destination. To this end, we design an optimal (economic) mechanism for timely information acquisition by generalizing Myerson's seminal work. The goal is to minimize the sum of the destination's age-related cost and its payment to the source, while ensuring that the source truthfully reports its private information and will voluntarily participate in the mechanism. Our results show that, under some distributions of the source's cost, our proposed optimal mechanism can lead to an unbounded benefit, compared against a benchmark that naively trusts the source's report and thus incentivizes its maximal over-reporting. 
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    Cellular Vehicle-to-Everything (C-V2X) networks are increasingly adopted by automotive original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). C-V2X, as defined in 3GPP Release 14 Mode 4, allows vehicles to self-manage the network in absence of a cellular base-station. Since C-V2X networks convey safety-critical messages, it is crucial to assess their security posture. This work contributes a novel set of Denial-of-Service (DoS) attacks on C-V2X networks operating in Mode 4. The attacks are caused by adversarial resource block selection and vary in sophistication and efficiency. In particular, we consider "oblivious" adversaries that ignore recent transmission activity on resource blocks, "smart" adversaries that do monitor activity on each resource block, and "cooperative" adversaries that work together to ensure they attack different targets. We analyze and simulate these attacks to showcase their effectiveness. Assuming a fixed number of attackers, we show that at low vehicle density, smart and cooperative attacks can significantly impact network performance, while at high vehicle density, oblivious attacks are almost as effective as the more sophisticated attacks. 
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    It is common in online markets for agents to learn from other's actions. Such observational learning can lead to herding or information cascades in which agents eventually "follow the crowd". Models for such cascades have been well studied for Bayes-rational agents that choose pay-off optimal actions. In this paper, we additionally consider the presence of fake agents that seek to influence other agents into taking one particular action. To that end, these agents take a fixed action in order to influence the subsequent agents towards their preferred action. We characterize how the fraction of such fake agents impacts behavior of the remaining agents and show that in certain scenarios, an increase in the fraction of fake agents in fact reduces the chances of their preferred outcome. 
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