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  1. Abstract We measured the precise masses of the host and planet in the OGLE-2003-BLG-235 system, when the lens and source were resolving, with 2018 Keck high resolution images. This measurement is in agreement with the observation taken in 2005 with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). In the 2005 data, the lens and sources were not resolved and the measurement was made using color-dependent centroid shift only. The Nancy Grace Roman Space Telescope will measure masses using data typically taken within 3–4 yr of the peak of the event, which is a much shorter baseline when compared to most of the mass measurements to date. Hence, the color-dependent centroid shift will be one of the primary methods of mass measurements for the Roman telescope. Yet, mass measurements of only two events (OGLE-2003-BLG-235 and OGLE-2005-BLG-071) have been done using the color-dependent centroid shift method so far. The accuracy of the measurements using this method are neither completely known nor well studied. The agreement of the Keck and HST results, as shown in this paper, is very important because this agreement confirms the accuracy of the mass measurements determined at a small lens-source separation using the color-dependent centroid shift method. It also shows that with >100 high resolution images, the Roman telescope will be able to use color-dependent centroid shift at a 3–4 yr time baseline and produce mass measurements. We find that OGLE-2003-BLG-235 is a planetary system that consists of a 2.34 ± 0.43 M Jup planet orbiting a 0.56 ± 0.06 M ⊙ K-dwarf host star at a distance of 5.26 ± 0.71 kpc from the Sun. 
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  2. Abstract

    Following Shin et al. (2023b), which is a part of the “Systematic KMTNet Planetary Anomaly Search” series (i.e., a search for planets in the 2016 KMTNet prime fields), we conduct a systematic search of the 2016 KMTNet subprime fields using a semi-machine-based algorithm to identify hidden anomalous events missed by the conventional by-eye search. We find four new planets and seven planet candidates that were buried in the KMTNet archive. The new planets are OGLE-2016-BLG-1598Lb, OGLE-2016-BLG-1800Lb, MOA-2016-BLG-526Lb, and KMT-2016-BLG-2321Lb, which show typical properties of microlensing planets, i.e., giant planets orbit M-dwarf host stars beyond their snow lines. For the planet candidates, we find planet/binary or 2L1S/1L2S degeneracies, which are an obstacle to firmly claiming planet detections. By combining the results of Shin et al. (2023b) and this work, we find a total of nine hidden planets, which is about half the number of planets discovered by eye in 2016. With this work, we have met the goal of the systematic search series for 2016, which is to build a complete microlensing planet sample. We also show that our systematic searches significantly contribute to completing the planet sample, especially for planet/host mass ratios smaller than 10−3, which were incomplete in previous by-eye searches of the KMTNet archive.

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    In this work, we update and develop algorithms for KMTNet tender-love care (TLC) photometry in order to create a new, mostly automated, TLC pipeline. We then start a project to systematically apply the new TLC pipeline to the historic KMTNet microlensing events, and search for buried planetary signals. We report the discovery of such a planet candidate in the microlensing event MOA-2019-BLG-421/KMT-2019-BLG-2991. The anomalous signal can be explained by either a planet around the lens star or the orbital motion of the source star. For the planetary interpretation, despite many degenerate solutions, the planet is most likely to be a Jovian planet orbiting an M or K dwarf, which is a typical microlensing planet. The discovery proves that the project can indeed increase the sensitivity of historic events and find previously undiscovered signals.

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  4. Aims. We investigate the data collected by the high-cadence microlensing surveys during the 2022 season in search of planetary signals appearing in the light curves of microlensing events. From this search, we find that the lensing event MOA-2022-BLG-249 exhibits a brief positive anomaly that lasted for about one day, with a maximum deviation of ~0.2 mag from a single-source, single-lens model. Methods. We analyzed the light curve under the two interpretations of the anomaly: one originated by a low-mass companion to the lens (planetary model) and the other originated by a faint companion to the source (binary-source model). Results. We find that the anomaly is better explained by the planetary model than the binary-source model. We identified two solutions rooted in the inner-outer degeneracy and for both of them, the estimated planet-to-host mass ratio, q ~ 8 × 10 −5 , is very small. With the constraints provided by the microlens parallax and the lower limit on the Einstein radius, as well as the blend-flux constraint, we find that the lens is a planetary system, in which a super-Earth planet, with a mass of (4.83 ± 1.44) Μ ⊕ , orbits a low-mass host star, with a mass of (0.18 ± 0.05) M ⊙ , lying in the Galactic disk at a distance of (2.00 ± 0.42) kpc. The planet detection demonstrates the elevated microlensing sensitivity of the current high-cadence lensing surveys to low-mass planets. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  5. ABSTRACT We present the observations and analysis of a high-magnification microlensing planetary event, KMT-2022-BLG-0440, for which the weak and short-lived planetary signal was covered by both the KMTNet survey and follow-up observations. The binary-lens models with a central caustic provide the best fits, with a planet/host mass ratio, q = 0.75–1.00 × 10−4 at 1σ. The binary-lens models with a resonant caustic and a brown-dwarf mass ratio are both excluded by Δχ2 > 70. The binary-source model can fit the anomaly well but is rejected by the ‘colour argument’ on the second source. From Bayesian analyses, it is estimated that the host star is likely a K or M dwarf located in the Galactic disc, the planet probably has a Neptune-mass, and the projected planet-host separation is $1.9^{+0.6}_{-0.7}$ or $4.6^{+1.4}_{-1.7}$  au, subject to the close/wide degeneracy. This is the third q < 10−4 planet from a high-magnification planetary signal (A ≳ 65). Together with another such planet, KMT-2021-BLG-0171Lb, the ongoing follow-up program for the KMTNet high-magnification events has demonstrated its ability to detect high-magnification planetary signals for q < 10−4 planets, which are challenging for the current microlensing surveys. 
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  6. Abstract We present Keck/NIRC2 adaptive optics imaging of planetary microlensing event MOA-2007-BLG-400 that resolves the lens star system from the source. We find that the MOA-2007-BLG-400L planetary system consists of a 1.71 ± 0.27 M Jup planet orbiting a 0.69 ± 0.04 M ⊙ K-dwarf host star at a distance of 6.89 ± 0.77 kpc from the Sun. So, this planetary system probably resides in the Galactic bulge. The planet–host star projected separation is only weakly constrained due to the close-wide light-curve degeneracy; the 2 σ projected separation ranges are 0.6–1.0 au and 4.7–7.7 au for close and wide solutions, respectively. This host mass is at the top end of the range of masses predicted by a standard Bayesian analysis. Our Keck follow-up program has now measured lens-source separations for six planetary microlensing events, and five of these six events have host star masses above the median prediction under the assumption that assumes that all stars have an equal chance of hosting planets detectable by microlensing. This suggests that more massive stars may be more likely to host planets of a fixed mass ratio that orbit near or beyond the snow line. These results also indicate the importance of host star mass measurements for exoplanets found by microlensing. The microlensing survey imaging data from NASA’s Nancy Grace Roman Space Telescope (formerly WFIRST) mission will be doing mass measurements like this for a huge number of planetary events. 
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  8. Abstract

    As a part of the “Systematic KMTNet Planetary Anomaly Search” series, we report five new planets (namely, OGLE-2016-BLG-1635Lb, MOA-2016-BLG-532Lb, KMT-2016-BLG-0625Lb, OGLE-2016-BLG-1850Lb, and KMT-2016-BLG-1751Lb) and one planet candidate (KMT-2016-BLG-1855), which were found by searching 2016 KMTNet prime fields. Theseburiedplanets show a wide range of masses from Earth-class to super-Jupiter-class and are located in both the disk and the bulge. The ultimate goal of this series is to build a complete planet sample. Because our work provides a complementary sample to other planet detection methods, which have different detection sensitivities, our complete sample will help us to obtain a better understanding of planet demographics in our Galaxy.

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  9. Abstract We analyze the MOA-2020-BLG-208 gravitational microlensing event and present the discovery and characterization of a new planet, MOA-2020-BLG-208Lb, with an estimated sub-Saturn mass. With a mass ratio q = 3.17 − 0.26 + 0.28 × 10 − 4 , the planet lies near the peak of the mass-ratio function derived by the MOA collaboration and near the edge of expected sample sensitivity. For these estimates we provide results using two mass-law priors: one assuming that all stars have an equal planet-hosting probability, and the other assuming that planets are more likely to orbit around more massive stars. In the first scenario, we estimate that the lens system is likely to be a planet of mass m planet = 46 − 24 + 42 M ⊕ and a host star of mass M host = 0.43 − 0.23 + 0.39 M ⊙ , located at a distance D L = 7.49 − 1.13 + 0.99 kpc . For the second scenario, we estimate m planet = 69 − 34 + 37 M ⊕ , M host = 0.66 − 0.32 + 0.35 M ⊙ , and D L = 7.81 − 0.93 + 0.93 kpc . The planet has a projected separation as a fraction of the Einstein ring radius s = 1.3807 − 0.0018 + 0.0018 . As a cool sub-Saturn-mass planet, this planet adds to a growing collection of evidence for revised planetary formation models. 
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  10. Abstract This supplement provides supporting material for Lam et al. We briefly summarize past gravitational microlensing searches for black holes (BHs) and present details of the observations, analysis, and modeling of five BH candidates observed with both ground-based photometric microlensing surveys and Hubble Space Telescope astrometry and photometry. We present detailed results for four of the five candidates that show no or low probability for the lens to be a BH. In these cases, the lens masses are <2 M ⊙ , and two of the four are likely white dwarfs or neutron stars. We also present detailed methods for comparing the full sample of five candidates to theoretical expectations of the number of BHs in the Milky Way (∼10 8 ). 
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