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  1. Discharge rates and water temperature of the primary inflow tributary into Falling Creek Reservoir (Vinton, Virginia, USA) were measured at a gauged weir on a 15-minute temporal resolution from May 2013 to December 2022. Falling Creek Reservoir is a drinking water supply reservoir owned and managed by the Western Virginia Water Authority (WVWA). The dataset consists of water temperatures and discharge rates calculated from a pressure transducer deployed by the WVWA in a rectangular weir (15 May 2013 - 06 June 2019) and in a v-notched weir (07 June 2019 - 31 December 2022) at the same site. From 07 June 2019 to 31 December 2022, water temperature and discharge data were also collected from a Virginia Tech-deployed (VT) pressure transducer installed in the same weir. 
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  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  3. This dataset consists of meteorological variables measured by a research-grade Campbell Scientific meteorological station deployed on the dam of Falling Creek Reservoir. Falling Creek Reservoir (Vinton, Virginia, USA), is owned and operated by the Western Virginia Water Authority as a primary water source. The meteorological variables include photosynthetic active radiation, barometric pressure, ambient air temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, wind speed and direction, shortwave radiation, infrared radiation, and albedo. All variables were measured every 5 minutes from 2015-07-07 16:45:00 to 2015-07-13 12:20:00 (YYYY-MM-DD hh:mm:ss) and every minute thereafter to the end of the dataset at 2022-12-31 23:59:00. We applied substantial quality assurance/quality control protocols to the raw observations, as described in the methods. 
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  4. Depth profiles of temperature, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, specific conductance, chlorophyll a, and turbidity were collected with a CTD (Conductivity, Temperature, and Depth) profiler fitted with a SBE 43 Dissolved Oxygen sensor and an ECO Triplet Fluorometer and Backscattering Sensor from 2013 to 2022. From 2017-2022, pH and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) were also collected with a SBE 27 pH and O.R.P. (redox) sensor. CTD profiles were collected in five drinking water reservoirs in southwestern Virginia, USA. All variables were measured every 0.25 seconds, resulting in depth profiles at approximately ten centimeter resolution. The five study reservoirs are: Beaverdam Reservoir (Vinton, Virginia), Carvins Cove Reservoir (Roanoke, Virginia), Falling Creek Reservoir (Vinton, Virginia), Gatewood Reservoir (Pulaski, Virginia), and Spring Hollow Reservoir (Salem, Virginia). Beaverdam, Carvins Cove, Falling Creek, and Spring Hollow Reservoirs are owned and operated by the Western Virginia Water Authority as primary or secondary drinking water sources for Roanoke, Virginia, and Gatewood Reservoir is a drinking water source for the town of Pulaski, Virginia. The dataset consists of CTD depth profiles measured at the deepest site of each reservoir adjacent to the dam as well as well as other upstream reservoir sites. The profiles were collected approximately fortnightly in the spring months, weekly in the summer and early autumn, and monthly in the late autumn and winter. Beaverdam Reservoir, Carvins Cove Reservoir, and Falling Creek Reservoir were sampled every year in the dataset (2013-2022); Spring Hollow Reservoir was not in sampled in 2018 or 2020–2022; and Gatewood Reservoir was only sampled in 2016. 
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  5. Abstract

    Water temperature forecasting in lakes and reservoirs is a valuable tool to manage crucial freshwater resources in a changing and more variable climate, but previous efforts have yet to identify an optimal modeling approach. Here, we demonstrate the first multi‐model ensemble (MME) reservoir water temperature forecast, a forecasting method that combines individual model strengths in a single forecasting framework. We developed two MMEs: a three‐model process‐based MME and a five‐model MME that includes process‐based and empirical models to forecast water temperature profiles at a temperate drinking water reservoir. We found that the five‐model MME improved forecast performance by 8%–30% relative to individual models and the process‐based MME, as quantified using an aggregated probabilistic skill score. This increase in performance was due to large improvements in forecast bias in the five‐model MME, despite increases in forecast uncertainty. High correlation among the process‐based models resulted in little improvement in forecast performance in the process‐based MME relative to the individual process‐based models. The utility of MMEs is highlighted by two results: (a) no individual model performed best at every depth and horizon (days in the future), and (b) MMEs avoided poor performances by rarely producing the worst forecast for any single forecasted period (<6% of the worst ranked forecasts over time). This work presents an example of how existing models can be combined to improve water temperature forecasting in lakes and reservoirs and discusses the value of utilizing MMEs, rather than individual models, in operational forecasts.

     
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  6. Depth profiles of dissolved organic carbon and total and dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus were sampled from 2013 to 2022 in five drinking water reservoirs in southwestern Virginia, USA. Some additional dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus samples from January to March 2023 are included in this data product. The five drinking water reservoirs are: Beaverdam Reservoir (Vinton, Virginia), Carvins Cove Reservoir (Roanoke, Virginia), Falling Creek Reservoir (Vinton, Virginia), Gatewood Reservoir (Pulaski, Virginia), and Spring Hollow Reservoir (Salem, Virginia). Beaverdam, Carvins Cove, Falling Creek, and Spring Hollow Reservoirs are owned and operated by the Western Virginia Water Authority as primary or secondary drinking water sources for Roanoke, Virginia, and Gatewood Reservoir is a drinking water source for the town of Pulaski, Virginia. The dataset consists of depth profiles of water chemistry samples measured at the deepest site of each reservoir adjacent to the dam. Additional water chemistry samples were collected at a gauged weir on Falling Creek Reservoir's primary inflow tributary, as well as surface samples at multiple upstream and inflow sites in Falling Creek Reservoir 2014-2022 and Beaverdam Reservoir in 2019 and 2020. One upstream site at BVR was sampled at depth in 2022. Inflow sites at Carvins Cove Reservoir were sampled from 2020 - 2022. The water column samples were collected approximately fortnightly from March-April, weekly from May-October, and monthly from November-February at Falling Creek Reservoir and Beaverdam Reservoir, approximately fortnightly from May-August in most years at Carvins Cove Reservoir, and approximately fortnightly from 2014-2016 in Gatewood and Spring Hollow Reservoirs, though sampling frequency and duration varied among reservoirs and years. Depth profiles of dissolved inorganic carbon were also collected from 2018-2022, but the analytical method for this analyte is still in development and these concentrations should be considered as preliminary data only. 
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  7. Depth profiles of water temperature on 1m intervals from 0.1 to 9 m depth; dissolved oxygen at 5 and 9 m depth; pressure at 9 m depth; and temperature, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, specific conductance, chlorophyll a, phycocyanin, total dissolved solids, fluorescent dissolved organic matter, and pressure at ~1.6 m depth were collected with a suite of high-frequency sensors at Falling Creek Reservoir (Vinton, Virginia, USA) on the 10-minute scale in 2018-2022. Falling Creek Reservoir is owned and managed by the Western Virginia Water Authority as a primary drinking water source for Roanoke, Virginia. This data product consists of one dataset compiled from water temperature data measured at multiple depths by thermistors, two dissolved oxygen sensors at multiple depths, pressure measured at one depth, and a YSI EXO2 sonde that measures temperature, dissolved oxygen, pressure, conductivity, specific conductance, chlorophyll a, phycocyanin, total dissolved solids, and fluorescent dissolved organic matter, at one depth, all measured at the deepest site of the reservoir adjacent to the dam. 
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  8. Depth profiles of fluorescence-based phytoplankton biomass were sampled using a bbe Moldaenke FluoroProbe during 2014 to 2022 in five drinking water reservoirs in southwestern Virginia, USA. These reservoirs are: Beaverdam Reservoir (Vinton, Virginia), Carvins Cove Reservoir (Roanoke, Virginia), Falling Creek Reservoir (Vinton, Virginia), Gatewood Reservoir (Pulaski, Virginia), and Spring Hollow Reservoir (Salem, Virginia). Beaverdam, Carvins Cove, Falling Creek, and Spring Hollow Reservoirs are owned and operated by the Western Virginia Water Authority as primary or secondary drinking water sources for Roanoke, Virginia, and Gatewood Reservoir is a drinking water source for the town of Pulaski, Virginia. The dataset consists of depth profiles of fluorescence-based phytoplankton biomass measured at the deepest site of each reservoir adjacent to the dam, except in Falling Creek Reservoir, where depth profiles were also taken at four upstream sites ranging from the riverine to the lacustrine zone during 2016-2019. Casts were taken approximately weekly from May-October and monthly from November-April. Casts were collected at Beaverdam and Falling Creek Reservoirs during all years (2014-2022); casts were collected at Carvins Cove Reservoir during 2014-2016 and 2018-2022; casts were collected at Spring Hollow Reservoir during 2014-2016 and 2019; and casts were collected at Gatewood Reservoir in 2015-2016. 
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  9. Discharge rates at multiple inflow streams into Falling Creek Reservoir (Vinton, Virginia, USA), Beaverdam Reservoir (Vinton, Virginia, USA), and Carvins Cove Reservoir (Roanoke, Virginia, USA) were measured manually using multiple methods from 2019-2022. Falling Creek Reservoir, Beaverdam Reservoir, and Carvins Cove Reservoir are owned and operated by the Western Virginia Water Authority as drinking water sources for Roanoke, Virginia. The dataset consists of discharge rates calculated using one of four methods: handheld flowmate, salt injection, velocity float or bucket method. Data were collected weekly to monthly from February through October 2019 at Falling Creek and Beaverdam Reservoir, and approximately monthly at Falling Creek in 2020-2021, and approximately monthly at Carvins Cove in 2021-2022. 
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  10. Measured eddy covariance data and fluxes (carbon dioxide, methane) collected at the deepest site of Falling Creek Reservoir (Vinton, Virginia, USA) every 30-minutes from April 2020 to December 2022. Falling Creek Reservoir is a drinking water supply reservoir owned and managed by the Western Virginia Water Authority (WVWA) as a primary drinking water source. The data set consists of micrometeorological and flux data collected using an eddy covariance system (LiCor Biosciences, Lincoln, Nebraska, USA) and analyzed with associated Eddy Pro software (Eddy Pro Version 7.0.6), including carbon dioxide and methane fluxes. All analysis scripts are included for data processing and quality assurance/quality control following best practices. 
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