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  1. In addition to ocean acidification, a significant recent warming trend in Chinese coastal waters has received much attention. However, studies of the combined effects of warming and acidification on natural coastal phytoplankton assemblages here are scarce. We conducted a continuous incubation experiment with a natural spring phytoplankton assemblage collected from the Bohai Sea near Tianjin. Experimental treatments used a full factorial combination of temperature (7 and 11°C) and pCO 2 (400 and 800 ppm) treatments. Results suggest that changes in pCO 2 and temperature had both individual and interactive effects on phytoplankton species composition and elemental stoichiometry. Warming mainly favored the accumulation of picoplankton and dinoflagellate biomass. Increased pCO 2 significantly increased particulate organic carbon to particulate organic phosphorus (C:P) and particulate organic carbon to biogenic silica (C:BSi) ratios, and decreased total diatom abundance; in the meanwhile, higher pCO 2 significantly increased the ratio of centric to pennate diatom abundance. Warming and increased pCO 2 both greatly decreased the proportion of diatoms to dinoflagellates. The highest chlorophyll a biomass was observed in the high pCO 2 , high temperature phytoplankton assemblage, which also had the slowest sinking rate of all treatments. Overall, there were significant interactive effects of increased pCOmore »2 and warming on dinoflagellate abundance, pennate diatom abundance, diatom vs. dinoflagellates ratio and the centric vs. pennate ratio. These findings suggest that future ocean acidification and warming trends may individually and cumulatively affect coastal biogeochemistry and carbon fluxes through shifts in phytoplankton species composition and sinking rates.« less
  2. Li-ion battery internal short circuits are a major safety issue for electric vehicles, and can lead to serious consequences such as battery thermal runaway. An internal short can be caused by mechanical abuse, high temperature, overcharging, and lithium plating. The low impedance or hard internal short circuit is the most dangerous kind. The high internal current flow can lead to battery temperature increase, thermal runaway, and even explosion in a few seconds. Algorithms that can quickly detect such serious events with a high confidence level and which are robust to sensor noise are needed to ensure passenger safety. False positives are also undesirable as many thermal runaway mitigation techniques, such as activating pyrotechnic safety switches, would disable the vehicle. Conventional methods of battery internal short detection, including voltage and surface temperature based algorithms, work well for a single cell. However, these methods are difficult to apply in large scale battery packs with many parallel cells. In this study, we propose a new internal short detection method by using cell swelling information during the early stages of a battery heating caused by an internal short circuit. By measuring cell expansion force, higher confidence level detection can be achieved for an internalmore »short circuit in an electric vehicle scale battery pack.« less