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  1. The Visual Turing Test is the ultimate goal to evaluate the realism of holographic displays. Previous studies have focused on addressing challenges such as limited e ́tendue and image quality over a large focal volume, but they have not investigated the effect of pupil sampling on the viewing experience in full 3D holograms. In this work, we tackle this problem with a novel hologram generation algorithm motivated by matching the projection operators of incoherent (Light Field) and coherent (Wigner Function) light transport. To this end, we supervise hologram computation using synthesized photographs, which are rendered on-the-fly using Light Field refocusing from stochastically sampled pupil states during optimization. The proposed method produces holograms with correct parallax and focus cues, which are important for passing the Visual Turing Test. We validate that our approach compares favorably to state-of-the-art CGH algorithms that use Light Field and Focal Stack supervision. Our experiments demonstrate that our algorithm improves the viewing experience when evaluated under a large variety of different pupil states. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 28, 2024
  2. Holography is a promising avenue for high-quality displays without requiring bulky, complex optical systems. While recent work has demonstrated accurate hologram generation of 2D scenes, high-quality holographic projections of 3D scenes has been out of reach until now. Existing multiplane 3D holography approaches fail to model wavefronts in the presence of partial occlusion while holographic stereogram methods have to make a fundamental tradeoff between spatial and angular resolution. In addition, existing 3D holographic display methods rely on heuristic encoding of complex amplitude into phase-only pixels which results in holograms with severe artifacts. Fundamental limitations of the input representation, wavefront modeling, and optimization methods prohibit artifact-free 3D holographic projections in today’s displays. To lift these limitations, we introduce hogel-free holography which optimizes for true 3D holograms, supporting both depth- and view-dependent effects for the first time. Our approach overcomes the fundamental spatio-angular resolution tradeoff typical to stereogram approaches. Moreover, it avoids heuristic encoding schemes to achieve high image fidelity over a 3D volume. We validate that the proposed method achieves 10 dB PSNR improvement on simulated holographic reconstructions. We also validate our approach on an experimental prototype with accurate parallax and depth focus effects. 
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  3. Eye tracking has already made its way to current commercial wearable display devices, and is becoming increasingly important for virtual and augmented reality applications. However, the existing model-based eye tracking solutions are not capable of conducting very accurate gaze angle measurements, and may not be sufficient to solve challenging display problems such as pupil steering or eyebox expansion. In this paper, we argue that accurate detection and localization of pupil in 3D space is a necessary intermediate step in model-based eye tracking. Existing methods and datasets either ignore evaluating the accuracy of 3D pupil localization or evaluate it only on synthetic data. To this end, we capture the first 3D pupilgaze-measurement dataset using a high precision setup with head stabilization and release it as the first benchmark dataset to evaluate both 3D pupil localization and gaze tracking methods. Furthermore, we utilize an advanced eye model to replace the commonly used oversimplified eye model. Leveraging the eye model, we propose a novel 3D pupil localization method with a deep learning-based corneal refraction correction. We demonstrate that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art works by reducing the 3D pupil localization error by 47.5% and the gaze estimation error by 18.7%. Our dataset and codes can be found here: link. 
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  4. Holographic displays promise to deliver unprecedented display capabilities in augmented reality applications, featuring a wide field of view, wide color gamut, spatial resolution, and depth cues all in a compact form factor. While emerging holographic display approaches have been successful in achieving large étendue and high image quality as seen by a camera, the large étendue also reveals a problem that makes existing displays impractical: the sampling of the holographic field by the eye pupil. Existing methods have not investigated this issue due to the lack of displays with large enough étendue, and, as such, they suffer from severe artifacts with varying eye pupil size and location. We show that the holographic field as sampled by the eye pupil is highly varying for existing display setups, and we propose pupil-aware holography that maximizes the perceptual image quality irrespective of the size, location, and orientation of the eye pupil in a near-eye holographic display. We validate the proposed approach both in simulations and on a prototype holographic display and show that our method eliminates severe artifacts and significantly outperforms existing approaches. 
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  5. Recent deep learning approaches have shown remarkable promise to enable high fidelity holographic displays. However, lightweight wearable display devices cannot afford the computation demand and energy consumption for hologram generation due to the limited onboard compute capability and battery life. On the other hand, if the computation is conducted entirely remotely on a cloud server, transmitting lossless hologram data is not only challenging but also result in prohibitively high latency and storage. In this work, by distributing the computation and optimizing the transmission, we propose the first framework that jointly generates and compresses high-quality phase-only holograms. Specifically, our framework asymmetrically separates the hologram generation process into high-compute remote encoding (on the server), and low-compute decoding (on the edge) stages. Our encoding enables light weight latent space data, thus faster and efficient transmission to the edge device. With our framework, we observed a reduction of 76% computation and consequently 83% in energy cost on edge devices, compared to the existing hologram generation methods. Our framework is robust to transmission and decoding errors, and approach high image fidelity for as low as 2 bits-per-pixel, and further reduced average bit-rates and decoding time for holographic videos. 
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    In this paper, we demonstrate the Information Interactions in Virtual Reality (IIVR) system designed and implemented to study how users interact with abstract information objects in immersive virtual environments in the context of information retrieval. Virtual reality displays are quickly growing as social and personal computing media, and understanding user interactions in these immersive environments is imperative. As a step towards effective information retrieval in such emerging platforms, our system is central to upcoming studies to observe how users engage in information triaging tasks in Virtual Reality (VR). In these studies, we will observe the effects of (1) information layouts and (2) types of interactions in VR. We believe this early system motivates researchers in understanding and designing meaningful interactions for future VR information retrieval applications. 
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