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Characterizing computational demand of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) is critical for guaranteeing that multiple hard real-time tasks may be scheduled on shared resources without missing deadlines. In a CPS involving repetition such as industrial automation systems found in chemical process control or robotic manufacturing, sensors and actuators used as part of the industrial process may be conditionally enabled (and disabled) as a sequence of repeated steps is executed. In robotic manufacturing, for example, these steps may be the movement of a robotic arm through some trajectories followed by activation of end-effector sensors and actuators at the end of each completed motion. The conditional enabling of sensors and actuators produces a sequence of Monotonically Ascending Execution times (MAE) with lower WCET when the sensors are disabled and higher WCET when enabled. Since these systems may have several predefined steps to follow before repeating the entire sequence each unique step may result in several consecutive sequences of MAE. The repetition of these unique sequences of MAE result in a repeating WCET sequence. In the absence of an efficient demand characterization technique for repeating WCET sequences composed of subsequences with monotonically increasing execution time, this work proposes a new task model to describe themore »
Schedule randomization is one of the recently introduced security defenses against schedule-based attacks, i.e., attacks whose success depends on a particular ordering between the execution window of an attacker and a victim task within the system. It falls into the category of information hiding (as opposed to deterministic isolation-based defenses) and is designed to reduce the attacker's ability to infer the future schedule. This paper aims to investigate the limitations and vulnerabilities of schedule randomization-based defenses in real-time systems. We first provide definitions, categorization, and examples of schedule-based attacks, and then discuss the challenges of employing schedule randomization in real-time systems. Further, we provide a preliminary security test to determine whether a certain timing relation between the attacker and victim tasks will never happen in systems scheduled by a fixed-priority scheduling algorithm. Finally, we compare fixed-priority scheduling against schedule-randomization techniques in terms of the success rate of various schedule-based attacks for both synthetic and real-world applications. Our results show that, in many cases, schedule randomization either has no security benefits or can even increase the success rate of the attacker depending on the priority relation between the attacker and victim tasks.