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  1. Wren, Jonathan (Ed.)
    Abstract Motivation The discovery of biologically interpretable and clinically actionable communities in heterogeneous omics data is a necessary first step toward deriving mechanistic insights into complex biological phenomena. Here, we present a novel clustering approach, omeClust, for community detection in omics profiles by simultaneously incorporating similarities among measurements and the overall complex structure of the data. Results We show that omeClust outperforms published methods in inferring the true community structure as measured by both sensitivity and misclassification rate on simulated datasets. We further validated omeClust in diverse, multiple omics datasets, revealing new communities and functionally related groups in microbial strains, cell line gene expression patterns and fetal genomic variation. We also derived enrichment scores attributable to putatively meaningful biological factors in these datasets that can serve as hypothesis generators facilitating new sets of testable hypotheses. Availability and implementation omeClust is open-source software, and the implementation is available online at http://github.com/omicsEye/omeClust. Supplementary information Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. 
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  2. Coelho, Luis Pedro (Ed.)
    It is challenging to associate features such as human health outcomes, diet, environmental conditions, or other metadata to microbial community measurements, due in part to their quantitative properties. Microbiome multi-omics are typically noisy, sparse (zero-inflated), high-dimensional, extremely non-normal, and often in the form of count or compositional measurements. Here we introduce an optimized combination of novel and established methodology to assess multivariable association of microbial community features with complex metadata in population-scale observational studies. Our approach, MaAsLin 2 (Microbiome Multivariable Associations with Linear Models), uses generalized linear and mixed models to accommodate a wide variety of modern epidemiological studies, including cross-sectional and longitudinal designs, as well as a variety of data types (e.g., counts and relative abundances) with or without covariates and repeated measurements. To construct this method, we conducted a large-scale evaluation of a broad range of scenarios under which straightforward identification of meta-omics associations can be challenging. These simulation studies reveal that MaAsLin 2’s linear model preserves statistical power in the presence of repeated measures and multiple covariates, while accounting for the nuances of meta-omics features and controlling false discovery. We also applied MaAsLin 2 to a microbial multi-omics dataset from the Integrative Human Microbiome (HMP2) project which, in addition to reproducing established results, revealed a unique, integrated landscape of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) across multiple time points and omics profiles. 
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  3. Abstract

    The performance of computational methods and software to identify differentially expressed features in single‐cell RNA‐sequencing (scRNA‐seq) has been shown to be influenced by several factors, including the choice of the normalization method used and the choice of the experimental platform (or library preparation protocol) to profile gene expression in individual cells. Currently, it is up to the practitioner to choose the most appropriate differential expression (DE) method out of over 100 DE tools available to date, each relying on their own assumptions to model scRNA‐seq expression features. To model the technological variability in cross‐platform scRNA‐seq data, here we propose to use Tweedie generalized linear models that can flexibly capture a large dynamic range of observed scRNA‐seq expression profiles across experimental platforms induced by platform‐ and gene‐specific statistical properties such as heavy tails, sparsity, and gene expression distributions. We also propose a zero‐inflated Tweedie model that allows zero probability mass to exceed a traditional Tweedie distribution to model zero‐inflated scRNA‐seq data with excessive zero counts. Using both synthetic and published plate‐ and droplet‐based scRNA‐seq datasets, we perform a systematic benchmark evaluation of more than 10 representative DE methods and demonstrate that our method (Tweedieverse) outperforms the state‐of‐the‐art DE approaches across experimental platforms in terms of statistical power and false discovery rate control. Our open‐source software (R/Bioconductor package) is available athttps://github.com/himelmallick/Tweedieverse.

     
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