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Creators/Authors contains: "Chen, Lianyi"

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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  2. Abstract

    The process instabilities intrinsic to the localized laser-powder bed interaction cause the formation of various defects in laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) additive manufacturing process. Particularly, the stochastic formation of large spatters leads to unpredictable defects in the as-printed parts. Here we report the elimination of large spatters through controlling laser-powder bed interaction instabilities by using nanoparticles. The elimination of large spatters results in 3D printing of defect lean sample with good consistency and enhanced properties. We reveal that two mechanisms work synergistically to eliminate all types of large spatters: (1) nanoparticle-enabled control of molten pool fluctuation eliminates the liquid breakup induced large spatters; (2) nanoparticle-enabled control of the liquid droplet coalescence eliminates liquid droplet colliding induced large spatters. The nanoparticle-enabled simultaneous stabilization of molten pool fluctuation and prevention of liquid droplet coalescence discovered here provide a potential way to achieve defect lean metal additive manufacturing.

  3. Laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) is an additive manufacturing technology with the capability of printing complex metal parts directly from digital models. Between two available emission modes employed in LPBF printing systems, pulsed wave (PW) emission provides more control over the heat input compared to continuous wave (CW) emission, which is highly beneficial for printing parts with intricate features. However, parts printed with pulsed wave LPBF (PW-LPBF) commonly contain pores, which degrade their mechanical properties. In this study, we reveal pore formation mechanisms during PW-LPBF in real time by using an in-situ high-speed synchrotron x-ray imaging technique. We found that vapor depression collapse proceeds when the laser irradiation stops within one pulse, resulting in occasional pore formation during PW-LPBF. We also revealed that the melt ejection and rapid melt pool solidification during pulsed-wave laser melting resulted in cavity formation and subsequent formation of a pore pattern in the melted track. The pore formation dynamics revealed here may provide guidance on developing pore elimination approaches.
  4. Additive manufacturing (AM) comprises a group of transformative technologies that are likely to revolutionize manufacturing. In particular, laser-based metal AM techniques can not only fabricate parts with extreme complexity, but also provide innovative means for designing and processing new metallic systems. However, there are still several technical barriers that constrain metal AM. Overcoming these barriers requires a better understanding of the physics underlying the complex and dynamic laser–metal interaction at the heart of many AM processes. This article briefly describes the state of the art of in situ / operando synchrotron x-ray imaging and diffraction for studying metal AM, mostly the laser powder-bed fusion process. It highlights the immediate impact of operando synchrotron studies on the advancement of AM technologies, and presents future research challenges and opportunities.