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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  2. In laser powder bed fusion processes, keyholes are the gaseous cavities formed where laser interacts with metal, and their morphologies play an important role in defect formation and the final product quality. The in-situ X-ray imaging technique can monitor the keyhole dynamics from the side and capture keyhole shapes in the X-ray image stream. Keyhole shapes in X-ray images are then often labeled by humans for analysis, which increasingly involves attempting to correlate keyhole shapes with defects using machine learning. However, such labeling is tedious, time-consuming, error-prone, and cannot be scaled to large data sets. To use keyhole shapes more readily as the input to machine learning methods, an automatic tool to identify keyhole regions is desirable. In this paper, a deep-learning-based computer vision tool that can automatically segment keyhole shapes out of X-ray images is presented. The pipeline contains a filtering method and an implementation of the BASNet deep learning model to semantically segment the keyhole morphologies out of X-ray images. The presented tool shows promising average accuracy of 91.24% for keyhole area, and 92.81% for boundary shape, for a range of test dataset conditions in Al6061 (and one AliSi10Mg) alloys, with 300 training images/labels and 100 testing images for each trial. Prospective users may apply the presently trained tool or a retrained version following the approach used here to automatically label keyhole shapes in large image sets.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2025
  3. Abstract

    The process instabilities intrinsic to the localized laser-powder bed interaction cause the formation of various defects in laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) additive manufacturing process. Particularly, the stochastic formation of large spatters leads to unpredictable defects in the as-printed parts. Here we report the elimination of large spatters through controlling laser-powder bed interaction instabilities by using nanoparticles. The elimination of large spatters results in 3D printing of defect lean sample with good consistency and enhanced properties. We reveal that two mechanisms work synergistically to eliminate all types of large spatters: (1) nanoparticle-enabled control of molten pool fluctuation eliminates the liquid breakup induced large spatters; (2) nanoparticle-enabled control of the liquid droplet coalescence eliminates liquid droplet colliding induced large spatters. The nanoparticle-enabled simultaneous stabilization of molten pool fluctuation and prevention of liquid droplet coalescence discovered here provide a potential way to achieve defect lean metal additive manufacturing.

     
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