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  1. This Letter presents a novel, to the best of our knowledge, method to calibrate multi-focus microscopic structured-light three-dimensional (3D) imaging systems with an electrically adjustable camera focal length. We first leverage the conventional method to calibrate the system with a reference focal lengthf0. Then we calibrate the system with other discrete focal lengthsfiby determining virtual features on a reconstructed white plane usingf0. Finally, we fit the polynomial function model using the discrete calibration results forfi. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method can calibrate the system consistently and accurately.

    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 10, 2024
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2023
  3. Abstract

    Bile duct cancer is the second most common primary liver cancer, with most diagnoses occurring in the advanced stages. This leads to a poor survival rate, which means a technique capable of reliably detecting pre-cancer in the bile duct is urgently required. Unfortunately, radiological imaging lacks adequate accuracy for distinguishing dysplastic and benign biliary ducts, while endoscopic techniques, which can directly assess the bile duct lining, often suffer from insufficient sampling. Here, we report an endoscopic optical light scattering technique for clinical evaluation of the malignant potential of the bile duct. This technique employs an ultraminiature spatial gating fiber optic probe compatible with cholangioscopes and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) catheters. The probe allowed us to investigate the internal cellular composition of the bile duct epithelium with light scattering spectroscopy (LSS) and phenotypic properties of the underlying connective tissue with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). In a pilot in vivo double-blind prospective study involving 29 patients undergoing routine ERCP procedures, the technique detected malignant transformation with 97% accuracy, showing that biliary duct pre-cancer can be reliably identified in vivo non-invasively.

  4. This paper presents a calibration method for a microscopic structured light system with an extended depth of field (DOF). We first employed the focal sweep technique to achieve large enough depth measurement range, and then developed a computational framework to alleviate the impact of phase errors caused by the standard off-the-shelf calibration target (black circles with a white background). Specifically, we developed a polynomial interpolation algorithm to correct phase errors near the black circles to obtain more accurate phase maps for projector feature points determination. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method can achieve a measurement accuracy of approximately 1.0 μ m for a measurement volume of approximately 2,500 μ m (W) × 2,000 μ m (H) × 500 μ m (D).
  5. Wax, Adam ; Backman, Vadim (Ed.)
  6. null (Ed.)
  7. null (Ed.)
    Organoids formed from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) could be a limitless source of functional tissue for transplantations in many organs. Unfortunately, fine-tuning differentiation protocols to form large quantities of hiPSC organoids in a controlled, scalable, and reproducible manner is quite difficult and often takes a very long time. Recently, we introduced a new approach of rapid organoid formation from dissociated hiPSCs and endothelial cells using microfabricated cell-repellent microwell arrays. This approach, when combined with real-time label-free Raman spectroscopy of biochemical composition changes and confocal light scattering spectroscopic microscopy of chromatin transition, allows for monitoring live differentiating organoids without the need to sacrifice a sample, substantially shortening the time of protocol fine-tuning. We used this approach to both culture and monitor homogeneous liver organoids that have the main functional features of the human liver and which could be used for cell transplantation liver therapy in humans.