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Creators/Authors contains: "Chen, Xiaodong"

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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 13, 2023
  2. Gap closure to eliminate physical discontinuities and restore tissue integrity is a fundamental process in normal development and repair of damaged tissues and organs. Here, we demonstrate a nonadhesive gap closure model in which collective cell migration, large-scale actin-network fusion, and purse-string contraction orchestrate to restore the gap. Proliferative pressure drives migrating cells to attach onto the gap front at which a pluricellular actin ring is already assembled. An actin-ring segment switching process then occurs by fusion of actin fibers from the newly attached cells into the actin cable and defusion from the previously lined cells, thereby narrowing the gap. Such actin-cable segment switching occurs favorably at high curvature edges of the gap, yielding size-dependent gap closure. Cellular force microscopies evidence that a persistent rise in the radial component of inward traction force signifies successful actin-cable segment switching. A kinetic model that integrates cell proliferation, actin fiber fusion, and purse-string contraction is formulated to quantitatively account for the gap-closure dynamics. Our data reveal a previously unexplored mechanism in which cells exploit multifaceted strategies in a highly cooperative manner to close nonadhesive gaps.

  3. Abstract. This study investigates and compares soil moisture andhydrology projections of broadly used land models with permafrost processesand highlights the causes and impacts of permafrost zone soil moistureprojections. Climate models project warmer temperatures and increases inprecipitation (P) which will intensify evapotranspiration (ET) and runoff inland models. However, this study shows that most models project a long-termdrying of the surface soil (0–20 cm) for the permafrost region despiteincreases in the net air–surface water flux (P-ET). Drying is generallyexplained by infiltration of moisture to deeper soil layers as the activelayer deepens or permafrost thaws completely. Although most models agree ondrying, the projections vary strongly in magnitude and spatial pattern.Land models tend to agree with decadal runoff trends but underestimaterunoff volume when compared to gauge data across the major Arctic riverbasins, potentially indicating model structural limitations. Coordinatedefforts to address the ongoing challenges presented in this study will helpreduce uncertainty in our capability to predict the future Arctichydrological state and associated land–atmosphere biogeochemical processesacross spatial and temporal scales.
  4. Abstract

    The emergence of wearable electronics puts batteries closer to the human skin, exacerbating the need for battery materials that are robust, highly ionically conductive, and stretchable. Herein, we introduce a supramolecular design as an effective strategy to overcome the canonical tradeoff between mechanical robustness and ionic conductivity in polymer electrolytes. The supramolecular lithium ion conductor utilizes orthogonally functional H-bonding domains and ion-conducting domains to create a polymer electrolyte with unprecedented toughness (29.3 MJ m−3) and high ionic conductivity (1.2 × 10−4S cm−1at 25 °C). Implementation of the supramolecular ion conductor as a binder material allows for the creation of stretchable lithium-ion battery electrodes with strain capability of over 900% via a conventional slurry process. The supramolecular nature of these battery components enables intimate bonding at the electrode-electrolyte interface. Combination of these stretchable components leads to a stretchable battery with a capacity of 1.1 mAh cm−2that functions even when stretched to 70% strain. The method reported here of decoupling ionic conductivity from mechanical properties opens a promising route to create high-toughness ion transport materials for energy storage applications.