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  1. Abstract

    Using a grid of empirically calibrated synthetic spectra developed in our previous study, we construct an all-sky 3D extinction map from the large collection of low-resolution XP spectra in Gaia DR3. Along each line of sight, with an area ranging from 0.2 to 13.4 deg2, we determine both the reddening and metallicity of main-sequence stars and model the foreground extinction up to approximately 3 kpc from the Sun. Furthermore, we explore variations in the total-to-selective extinction ratio in our parameter search and identify its mean systematic change across diverse cloud environments in both hemispheres. In regions outside the densest parts of the clouds, our reddening estimates are validated through comparisons with previous reddening maps. However, a notable discrepancy arises in comparison to other independent work based on XP spectra, which can be attributed to systematic offsets in their metallicity estimates. On the other hand, our metallicity scale exhibits reasonable agreement with the high-resolution spectroscopic abundance scale. We also assess the accuracy of the XP spectra by applying our calibrated models, and we confirm an increasing trend of flux overestimation at shorter wavelengths below 400 nm.

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    We report on the discovery of the first ultra-metal-poor (UMP) star 2MASS J20500194−6613298 (J2050−6613; [Fe/H] = −4.05) selected from the Gaia BP/RP spectral catalogue that belongs to the ancient Atari disc component. We obtained a high-resolution spectrum for the star with the MIKE spectrograph on the Magellan-Clay telescope. J2050−6613 displays a typical chemical abundance pattern for UMP stars, including carbon and zinc enhancements. In contrast, J2050−6613 shows extremely high [Sr/Fe] and [Sr/Ba] ratios compared to other stars in the [Fe/H] < −4.0 regime. J2050−6613 is most likely an early Population II star that formed from a gas cloud that was chemically enriched by a massive Population III hypernova (E > 1052 erg). Such a Population III core-collapse hypernova could simultaneously explain the origin of the abundance pattern of light and heavy elements of 2MASS J2050−6613 if a large amount of Sr of ∼10−5 M⊙ was produced, possibly by neutrino-driven (wind) ejecta. Therefore, the abundance pattern of 2MASS J2050−6613 places important constraints on Sr-producing nucleosynthesis sources operating in the Atari progenitor at the earliest times.

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  3. Abstract

    The Hercules ultrafaint dwarf galaxy (UFD) has long been hypothesized to be tidally disrupting, yet no conclusive evidence has been found for tidal disruption owing partly to difficulties in identifying Hercules member stars. In this work, we present a homogeneous reanalysis of new and existing observations of Hercules, including the detection of a new potential member star located ∼1° (∼1.7 kpc) west of the center of the system. In addition to measuring the line-of-sight velocity gradient, we compare predictions from dynamical models of stream formation to these observations. We report an updated velocity dispersion measurement based on 28 stars,1.90.6+0.6km s−1, which is significantly lower than previous measurements. We find that the line-of-sight velocity gradient is1.81.8+1.8km s−1kpc along the major axis of Hercules, consistent with zero within 1σ. Our dynamical models of stream formation, on the other hand, can reproduce the morphology of the Hercules UFD, specifically the misalignment between the elongation and the orbital motion direction. Additionally, these dynamical models indicate that any radial velocity gradient from tidal disruption would be too small,0.000.91+0.97km s−1kpc, to be detectable with current sample sizes. Combined with our analysis of the tidal radius evolution of the system as a function of its orbital phase, we argue that it is likely that Hercules is indeed currently undergoing tidal disruption in its extended stellar halo with a line-of-sight velocity gradient too small to be detected with current observational data sets.

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    We present the first detailed chemical-abundance analysis of stars from the dwarf-galaxy stellar stream Wukong/LMS-1 covering a wide metallicity range ($-3.5 \lt \rm [Fe/H] \lesssim -1.3$). We find abundance patterns that are effectively indistinguishable from the bulk of Indus and Jhelum, a pair of smaller stellar streams proposed to be dynamically associated with Wukong/LMS-1. We confirmed a carbon-enhanced metal-poor star ($\rm [C/Fe] \gt +0.7$ and $\rm [Fe/H] \sim -2.9$) in Wukong/LMS-1 with strong enhancements in Sr, Y, and Zr, which is peculiar given its solar-level [Ba/Fe]. Wukong/LMS-1 stars have high abundances of α elements up to $\rm [Fe/H] \gtrsim -2$, which is expected for relatively massive dwarfs. Towards the high-metallicity end, Wukong/LMS-1 becomes α-poor, revealing that it probably experienced fairly standard chemical evolution. We identified a pair of N- and Na-rich stars in Wukong/LMS-1, reminiscent of multiple stellar populations in globular clusters. This indicates that this dwarf galaxy contained at least one globular cluster that was completely disrupted in addition to two intact ones previously known to be associated with Wukong/LMS-1, which is possibly connected to similar evidence found in Indus. From these ≥3 globular clusters, we estimate the total mass of Wukong/LMS-1 to be ${\approx }10^{10} \, \mathrm{M}_\odot$, representing ∼1 per cent of the present-day Milky Way. Finally, the [Eu/Mg] ratio in Wukong/LMS-1 continuously increases with metallicity, making this the first example of a dwarf galaxy where the production of r-process elements is clearly dominated by delayed sources, presumably neutron-star mergers.

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  5. Abstract We have developed a chemodynamical approach to assign 36,010 metal-poor SkyMapper stars to various Galactic stellar populations. Using two independent techniques (velocity and action space behavior), Gaia EDR3 astrometry, and photometric metallicities, we selected stars with the characteristics of the “metal-weak” thick-disk population by minimizing contamination by the canonical thick disk or other Galactic structures. This sample comprises 7127 stars, spans a metallicity range of −3.50 < [Fe/H] < −0.8, and has a systematic rotational velocity of 〈 V ϕ 〉 = 154 km s −1 that lags that of the thick disk. Orbital eccentricities have intermediate values between typical thick-disk and halo values. The scale length is h R = 2.48 − 0.05 + 0.05 kpc, and the scale height is h Z = 1.68 − 0.15 + 0.19 kpc. The metallicity distribution function is well fit by an exponential with a slope of Δ log N / Δ [ Fe / H ] = 1.13 ± 0.06 . Overall, we find a significant metal-poor component consisting of 261 SkyMapper stars with [Fe/H] < −2.0. While our sample contains only 11 stars with [Fe/H] ≲ −3.0, investigating the JINAbase compilation of metal-poor stars reveals another 18 such stars (five have [Fe/H] < −4.0) that kinematically belong to our sample. These distinct spatial, kinematic, and chemical characteristics strongly suggest that this metal-poor, phase-mixed kinematic sample represents an independent disk component with an accretion origin in which a massive dwarf galaxy radially plunged into the early Galactic disk. Going forward, we propose to call the metal-weak thick-disk population the Atari disk, given its likely accretion origin, and in reference to it sharing space with the Galactic thin and thick disks. 
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  6. Abstract

    We present a chemodynamical study of the Grus I ultra-faint dwarf galaxy (UFD) from medium-resolution (R∼ 11,000) Magellan/IMACS spectra of its individual member stars. We identify eight confirmed members of Grus I, based on their low metallicities and coherent radial velocities, and four candidate members for which only velocities are derived. In contrast to previous work, we find that Grus I has a very low mean metallicity of 〈[Fe/H]〉 = −2.62 ± 0.11 dex, making it one of the most metal-poor UFDs. Grus I has a systemic radial velocity of −143.5 ± 1.2 km s−1and a velocity dispersion ofσrv=2.50.8+1.3km s−1, which results in a dynamical mass ofM1/2(rh)=84+12×105Mand a mass-to-light ratio ofM/LV=440250+650M/L. Under the assumption of dynamical equilibrium, our analysis confirms that Grus I is a dark-matter-dominated UFD (M/L> 80M/L). However, we do not resolve a metallicity dispersion (σ[Fe/H]< 0.44 dex). Our results indicate that Grus I is a fairly typical UFD with parameters that agree with mass–metallicity and metallicity-luminosity trends for faint galaxies. This agreement suggests that Grus I has not lost an especially significant amount of mass from tidal encounters with the Milky Way, in line with its orbital parameters. Intriguingly, Grus I has among the lowest central densities (ρ1/23.52.1+5.7×107Mkpc−3) of the UFDs that are not known to be tidally disrupting. Models of the formation and evolution of UFDs will need to explain the diversity of these central densities, in addition to any diversity in the outer regions of these relic galaxies.

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    We present a high-resolution (R ∼ 35 000), high signal-to-noise (S/N = 350) Magellan/MIKE spectrum of the bright extremely metal-poor star 2MASS J1808−5104. We find [Fe/H] = −4.01 (spectroscopic LTE stellar parameters), [Fe/H] = −3.8 (photometric stellar parameters), and [Fe/H] = −3.7 (spectroscopic NLTE stellar parameters). We measured a carbon-to-iron ratio of [C/Fe] = 0.38 from the CH G-band. J1808−5104 is thus not carbon-enhanced, contrary to many other stars with similarly low-iron abundances. We also determine, for the first time, a barium abundance ([Ba/Fe] = −0.78), and obtain a significantly reduced upper limit for the nitrogen abundance ([N/Fe] < −0.2). For its [Ba/Fe] abundance, J1808−5104 has a lower [Sr/Ba] ratio compared to other stars, consistent with behaviour of stars in ultra-faint dwarf galaxies. We also fit the abundance pattern of J1808−5104 with nucleosynthesis yields from a grid of Population III supernova models. There is a good fit to the abundance pattern that suggests J1808−5104 originated from gas enriched by a single massive supernova with a high explosion energy of E = 10 × 1051 erg and a progenitor stellar mass of M = 29.5 M⊙. Interestingly, J1808−5104 is a member of the Galactic thin disc, as confirmed by our detailed kinematic analysis and calculated stellar actions and velocities. Finally, we also established the orbital history of J1808−5104 using our time-dependent Galactic potential the ORIENT. J1808−5104 appears to have a stable quasi-circular orbit and been largely confined to the thin disc. This unique orbital history, the star’s very old age (∼13.5 Gyr), and the low [C/Fe] and [Sr/Ba] ratios suggest that J1808−5104 may have formed at the earliest epoch of the hierarchical assembly of the Milky Way, and it is most likely associated with the primordial thin disc.

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  8. null (Ed.)