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  1. Abstract High-quality N-polar GaN p-n diodes are realized on single-crystal N-polar GaN bulk substrate by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The room-temperature current–voltage characteristics reveal a high on/off current ratio of >10 11 at ±4 V and an ideality factor of 1.6. As the temperature increases to 200 °C, the apparent ideality factor gradually approaches 2. At such high temperatures, Shockley–Read–Hall recombination times of 0.32–0.46 ns are estimated. The measured electroluminescence spectrum is dominated by a strong near-band edge emission, while deep level and acceptor-related luminescence is greatly suppressed. 
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  2. Atomic surface cleaning has enabled successful growth of ultrawide bandgap nitrogen-polar aluminum nitride semiconductors. 
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  3. Mueller matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry is applied to determine anisotropic optical properties for a set of single-crystal rhombohedral structure α-(Al x Ga 1− x ) 2 O 3 thin films (0 [Formula: see text] x [Formula: see text] 1). Samples are grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on m-plane sapphire. A critical-point model is used to render a spectroscopic model dielectric function tensor and to determine direct electronic band-to-band transition parameters, including the direction dependent two lowest-photon energy band-to-band transitions associated with the anisotropic bandgap. We obtain the composition dependence of the direction dependent two lowest band-to-band transitions with separate bandgap bowing parameters associated with the perpendicular ([Formula: see text] = 1.31 eV) and parallel ([Formula: see text] = 1.61 eV) electric field polarization to the lattice c direction. Our density functional theory calculations indicate a transition from indirect to direct characteristics between α-Ga 2 O 3 and α-Al 2 O 3 , respectively, and we identify a switch in band order where the lowest band-to-band transition occurs with polarization perpendicular to c in α-Ga 2 O 3 whereas for α-Al 2 O 3 the lowest transition occurs with polarization parallel to c. We estimate that the change in band order occurs at approximately 40% Al content. Additionally, the characteristic of the lowest energy critical point transition for polarization parallel to c changes from M 1 type in α-Ga 2 O 3 to M 0 type van Hove singularity in α-Al 2 O 3 . 
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  4. AlScN is attractive as a lattice-matched epitaxial barrier layer for incorporation in GaN high electron mobility transistors due to its large dielectric constant and polarization. The transport properties of polarization-induced two-dimensional (2D) electron gas of densities of ∼2×1013/cm2 formed at the AlScN–GaN interface is studied by Hall-effect measurements down to cryogenic temperatures. The 2D electron gas densities exhibit mobilities limited to ∼300 cm2/V s down to 10 K at AlScN/GaN heterojunctions. The insertion of a ∼2 nm AlN interlayer boosts the room temperature mobility by more than five times from ∼300 cm2/V s to ∼1573 cm2/V s, and the 10 K mobility by more than 20 times to ∼6980 cm2/V s at 10 K. These measurements provide guidelines to the limits of electron conductivities of these highly polar heterostructures.

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  5. The polarization difference and band offset between Al(Ga)N and GaN induce two-dimensional (2D) free carriers in Al(Ga)N/GaN heterojunctions without any chemical doping. A high-density 2D electron gas (2DEG), analogous to the recently discovered 2D hole gas in a metal-polar structure, is predicted in a N-polar pseudomorphic GaN/Al(Ga)N heterostructure on unstrained AlN. We report the observation of such 2DEGs in N-polar undoped pseudomorphic GaN/AlGaN heterostructures on single-crystal AlN substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. With a high electron density of ∼4.3 ×1013/cm2 that maintains down to cryogenic temperatures and a room temperature electron mobility of ∼450 cm2/V s, a sheet resistance as low as ∼320 Ω/◻ is achieved in a structure with an 8 nm GaN layer. These results indicate significant potential of AlN platform for future high-power RF electronics based on N-polar III-nitride high electron mobility transistors.

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  6. null (Ed.)