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  1. We present a reanalysis of the K2-106 transiting planetary system, with a focus on the composition of K2-106b, an ultra-short-period, super-Mercury candidate. We globally model existing photometric and radial velocity data and derive a planetary mass and radius for K2-106b of Mp = 8.53 ± 1.02 M⊕ and = - + Rp 1.71 0.057 RÅ 0.069 , which leads to a density of r = - + 9.4 p 1.5 1.6 g cm−3 , a significantly lower value than previously reported in the literature. We use planet interior models that assume a two-layer planet comprised of a liquid, pure Fe core and an iron-free, MgSiO3 mantle, and we determine that the range of the core mass fractions are consistent with the observed mass and radius. We use existing high-resolution spectra of the host star to derive the Fe/Mg/Si abundances ([Fe/ H] = −0.03 ± 0.01, [Mg/H] = 0.04 ± 0.02, [Si/H] = 0.03 ± 0.06) to infer the composition of K2-106b. We find that K2-106b has a density and core mass fraction ( - + 44 %15 12 ) consistent with that of Earth (CMF⊕ = 32%). Furthermore, its composition is consistent with what is expected, assuming that it reflects the relative refractory abundances of its host star. K2-106b is therefore unlikely to be a super-Mercury, as has been suggested in previous literature. 
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  2. ABSTRACT

    The radial velocity method is amongst the most robust and most established means of detecting exoplanets. Yet, it has so far failed to detect circumbinary planets despite their relatively high occurrence rates. Here, we report velocimetric measurements of Kepler-16A, obtained with the SOPHIE spectrograph, at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence’s 193cm telescope, collected during the BEBOP survey for circumbinary planets. Our measurements mark the first radial velocity detection of a circumbinary planet, independently determining the mass of Kepler-16 (AB) b to be $0.313 \pm 0.039\, {\rm M}_{\rm Jup}$, a value in agreement with eclipse timing variations. Our observations demonstrate the capability to achieve photon-noise precision and accuracy on single-lined binaries, with our final precision reaching $\rm 1.5~m\, s^{-1}$ on the binary and planetary signals. Our analysis paves the way for more circumbinary planet detections using radial velocities which will increase the relatively small sample of currently known systems to statistically relevant numbers, using a method that also provides weaker detection biases. Our data also contain a long-term radial velocity signal, which we associate with the magnetic cycle of the primary star.

     
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  5. ABSTRACT

    We report the discovery and characterization of a pair of sub-Neptunes transiting the bright K-dwarf TOI-1064 (TIC 79748331), initially detected in the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) photometry. To characterize the system, we performed and retrieved the CHaracterising ExOPlanets Satellite (CHEOPS), TESS, and ground-based photometry, the High Accuracy Radial velocity Planet Searcher (HARPS) high-resolution spectroscopy, and Gemini speckle imaging. We characterize the host star and determine $T_{\rm eff, \star }=4734\pm 67\,\mathrm{ K}$, $R_{\star }=0.726\pm 0.007\, \mathrm{ R}_{\odot }$, and $M_{\star }=0.748\pm 0.032\, \mathrm{ M}_{\odot }$. We present a novel detrending method based on point spread function shape-change modelling and demonstrate its suitability to correct flux variations in CHEOPS data. We confirm the planetary nature of both bodies and find that TOI-1064 b has an orbital period of Pb = 6.44387 ± 0.00003 d, a radius of Rb = 2.59 ± 0.04 R⊕, and a mass of $M_{\rm b} = 13.5_{-1.8}^{+1.7}$ M⊕, whilst TOI-1064 c has an orbital period of $P_{\rm c} = 12.22657^{+0.00005}_{-0.00004}$ d, a radius of Rc = 2.65 ± 0.04 R⊕, and a 3σ upper mass limit of 8.5 M⊕. From the high-precision photometry we obtain radius uncertainties of ∼1.6 per cent, allowing us to conduct internal structure and atmospheric escape modelling. TOI-1064 b is one of the densest, well-characterized sub-Neptunes, with a tenuous atmosphere that can be explained by the loss of a primordial envelope following migration through the protoplanetary disc. It is likely that TOI-1064 c has an extended atmosphere due to the tentative low density, however further radial velocities are needed to confirm this scenario and the similar radii, different masses nature of this system. The high-precision data and modelling of TOI-1064 b are important for planets in this region of mass–radius space, and it allow us to identify a trend in bulk density–stellar metallicity for massive sub-Neptunes that may hint at the formation of this population of planets.

     
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