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  1. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are becoming more common, presenting the need for effective human-robot communication strategies that address the unique nature of unmanned aerial flight. Visual communication via drone flight paths, also called gestures, may prove to be an ideal method. However, the effectiveness of visual communication techniques is dependent on several factors including an observer's position relative to a UAV. Previous work has studied the maximum line-of-sight at which observers can identify a small UAV [1]. However, this work did not consider how changes in distance may affect an observer's ability to perceive the shape of a UAV's motion. In this study, we conduct a series of online surveys to evaluate how changes in line-of-sight distance and gesture size affect observers' ability to identify and distinguish between UAV gestures. We first examine observers' ability to accurately identify gestures when adjusting a gesture's size relative to the size of a UAV. We then measure how observers' ability to identify gestures changes with respect to varying line-of-sight distances. Lastly, we consider how altering the size of a UAV gesture may improve an observer's ability to identify drone gestures from varying distances. Our results show that increasing the gesture size across varyingmore »UAV to gesture ratios did not have a significant effect on participant response accuracy. We found that between 17 m and 75 m from the observer, their ability to accurately identify a drone gesture was inversely proportional to the distance between the observer and the drone. Finally, we found that maintaining a gesture's apparent size improves participant response accuracy over changing line-of-sight distances.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 23, 2023
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2023
  3. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) flight paths have been shown to communicate meaning to human observers, similar to human gestural communication. This paper presents the results of a UAV gesture perception study designed to assess how observer viewpoint perspective may impact how humans perceive the shape of UAV gestural motion. Robot gesture designers have demonstrated that robots can indeed communicate meaning through gesture; however, many of these results are limited to an idealized range of viewer perspectives and do not consider how the perception of a robot gesture may suffer from obfuscation or self-occlusion from some viewpoints. This paper presents the results of three online user-studies that examine participants' ability to accurately perceive the intended shape of two-dimensional UAV gestures from varying viewer perspectives. We used a logistic regression model to characterize participant gesture classification accuracy, demonstrating that viewer perspective does impact how participants perceive the shape of UAV gestures. Our results yielded a viewpoint angle threshold from beyond which participants were able to assess the intended shape of a gesture's motion with 90% accuracy. We also introduce a perceptibility score to capture user confidence, time to decision, and accuracy in labeling and to understand how differences in flight paths impactmore »perception across viewpoints. These findings will enable UAV gesture systems that, with a high degree of confidence, ensure gesture motions can be accurately perceived by human observers.« less
  4. Type annotations connect variables to domain-specific types. They enable the power of type checking and can detect faults early. In practice, type annotations have a reputation of being burdensome to developers. We lack, however, an empirical understanding of how and why they are burdensome. Hence, we seek to measure the baseline accuracy and speed for developers making type annotations to previously unseen code. We also study the impact of one or more type suggestions. We conduct an empirical study of 97 developers using 20 randomly selected code artifacts from the robotics domain containing physical unit types. We find that subjects select the correct physical type with just 51% accuracy, and a single correct annotation takes about 2 minutes on average. Showing subjects a single suggestion has a strong and significant impact on accuracy both when correct and incorrect, while showing three suggestions retains the significant benefits without the negative effects. We also find that suggestions do not come with a time penalty. We require subjects to explain their annotation choices, and we qualitatively analyze their explanations. We find that identifier names and reasoning about code operations are the primary clues for selecting a type. We also examine two state-of-the-art automatedmore »type annotation systems and find opportunities for their improvement.« less
  5. Abstract. This paper describes the data collected by the University of Nebraska-Lincoln (UNL) as part of the field deployments during the Lower Atmospheric Process Studies at Elevation – a Remotely-piloted Aircraft Team Experiment (LAPSE-RATE) flight campaign in July 2018.The UNL deployed two multirotor unmanned aerial systems (UASs) at multiple sites in the San Luis Valley (Colorado, USA) for data collection to support three science missions: convection initiation, boundary layer transition, and cold air drainage flow.We conducted 172 flights resulting in over 21 h of cumulative flight time.Our novel design for the sensor housing onboard the UAS was employed in these flights to meet the aspiration and shielding requirements of the temperature and humidity sensors and to separate them from the mixed turbulent airflow from the propellers.Data presented in this paper include timestamped temperature and humidity data collected from the sensors, along with the three-dimensional position and velocity of the UAS.Data are quality-controlled and time-synchronized using a zero-order-hold interpolation without additional post-processing.The full dataset is also made available for download at (Islam et al., 2020).