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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2024
  2. Abstract

    The research reported in this article is concerned with the question of detecting and subsequently determining the endpoint in a long-stretch, ultraprecision surface polishing process. While polishing endpoint detection has attracted much attention for several decades in the chemical-mechanical planarization of semiconductor wafer polishing processes, the uniqueness of the surface polishing process under our investigation calls for novel solutions. To tackle the research challenges, we develop both an offline model and an online detection method. The offline model is a functional regression that relates the vibration signals to the surface roughness, whereas the online procedure is a change-point detection method that detects the energy turning points in the vibration signals. Our study reveals a number of insights. The offline functional regression model shows clearly that the polishing process progresses in three states, including a saturation phase, over which the polishing action could be substantially shortened. The online detection method signals in real-time when to break a polishing cycle and to institute a follow-up inspection, rather than letting the machine engage in an overpolishing cycle for too long. When implemented properly, both sets of insights and the corresponding methods could lead to substantial savings in polishing time and energy and significantly improve the throughput of such polishing processes without inadvertently affecting the quality of the final polish.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  3. The wind energy industry is continuously improving their operational and maintenance practice for reducing the levelized costs of energy. Anticipating failures in wind turbines enables early warnings and timely intervention, so that the costly corrective maintenance can be prevented to the largest extent possible. It also avoids production loss owing to prolonged unavailability. One critical element allowing early warning is the ability to accumulate small-magnitude symptoms resulting from the gradual degradation of wind turbine systems. Inspired by the cumulative sum control chart method, this study reports the development of a wind turbine failure detection method with such early warning capability. Specifically, the following key questions are addressed: what fault signals to accumulate, how long to accumulate, what offset to use, and how to set the alarm-triggering control limit. We apply the proposed approach to 2 years’ worth of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition data recorded from five wind turbines. We focus our analysis on gearbox failure detection, in which the proposed approach demonstrates its ability to anticipate failure events with a good lead time. 
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