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  1. Understanding network traffic characteristics of IoT devices plays a critical role in improving both the performance and security of IoT devices, including IoT device identification, classification, and anomaly detection. Although a number of existing research efforts have developed machine-learning based algorithms to help address the challenges in improving the security of IoT devices, none of them have provided detailed studies on the network traffic characteristics of IoT devices. In this paper we collect and analyze the network traffic generated in a typical smart homes environment consisting of a set of common IoT (and non-IoT) devices. We analyze the network traffic characteristics of IoT devices from three complementary aspects: remote network servers and port numbers that IoT devices connect to, flow-level traffic characteristics such as flow duration, and packet-level traffic characteristics such as packet inter-arrival time. Our study provides critical insights into the operational and behavioral characteristics of IoT devices, which can help develop more effective security and performance algorithms for IoT devices.
  2. Although consumer drones have been used in many attacks, besides specific methods such as jamming, very little research has been conducted on systematical methods to counter these drones. In this paper, we develop generic methods to compromise drone position control algorithms in order to make malicious drones deviate from their targets. Taking advantage of existing methods to remotely manipulate drone sensors through cyber or physical attacks (e.g., [1], [2]), we exploited the weaknesses of position estimation and autopilot controller algorithms on consumer drones in the proposed attacks. For compromising drone position control, we first designed two state estimation attacks: a maximum False Data Injection (FDI) attack and a generic FDI attack that compromised the Kalman-Filter-based position estimation (arguably the most popular method). Furthermore, based on the above attacks, we proposed two attacks on autopilot-based navigation, to compromise the actual position of a malicious drone. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first piece of work in this area. Our analysis and simulation results show that the proposed attacks can significantly affect the position estimation and the actual positions of drones. We also proposed potential countermeasures to address these attacks.
  3. While more and more consumer drones are abused in recent attacks, there is still very little systematical research on countering malicious consumer drones. In this paper, we focus on this issue and develop effective attacks to common autopilot control algorithms to compromise the flight paths of autopiloted drones, e.g., leading them away from its preset paths. We consider attacking an autopiloted drone in three phases: attacking its onboard sensors, attacking its state estimation, and attacking its autopilot algorithms. Several firstphase attacks have been developed (e.g., [1]–[4]); second-phase attacks (including our previous work [5], [6]) have also been investigated. In this paper, we focus on the third-phase attacks. We examine three common autopilot algorithms, and design several attacks by exploiting their weaknesses to mislead a drone from its preset path to a manipulated path. We present the formal analysis of the scope of such manipulated paths. We further discuss how to apply the proposed attacks to disrupt preset drone missions, such as missing a target in searching an area or misleading a drone to intercept another drone, etc. Many potential attacks can be built on top of the proposed attacks. We are currently investigating different models to apply such attacks onmore »common drone missions and also building prototype systems on ArduPilot for real world tests. We will further investigate countermeasures to address the potential damages.« less
  4. Because cloud storage services have been broadly used in enterprises for online sharing and collaboration, sensitive information in images or documents may be easily leaked outside the trust enterprise on-premises due to such cloud services. Existing solutions to this problem have not fully explored the tradeoffs among application performance, service scalability, and user data privacy. Therefore, we propose CloudDLP, a generic approach for enterprises to automatically sanitize sensitive data in images and documents in browser-based cloud storage. To the best of our knowledge, CloudDLP is the first system that automatically and transparently detects and sanitizes both sensitive images and textual documents without compromising user experience or application functionality on browser-based cloud storage. To prevent sensitive information escaping from on-premises, CloudDLP utilizes deep learning methods to detect sensitive information in both images and textual documents. We have evaluated the proposed method on a number of typical cloud applications. Our experimental results show that it can achieve transparent and automatic data sanitization on the cloud storage services with relatively low overheads, while preserving most application functionalities.
  5. While cloud storage has become a common practice for more and more organizations, many severe cloud data breaches in recent years show that protecting sensitive data in the cloud is still a challenging problem. Although various mitigation techniques have been proposed, they are not scalable for large scale enterprise users with strict security requirements or often depend on error-prone human interventions. To address these issues, we propose FileCrypt, a generic proxy-based technique for enterprise users to automatically secure sensitive files in browser-based cloud storage. To the best of our knowledge, FileCrypt is the first attempt towards transparent and fully automated file encryption for browser-based cloud storage services. More importantly, it does not require active cooperations from cloud providers or modifications of existing cloud applications. By instrumenting mandatory file-related JavaScript APIs in browsers, FileCrypt can naturally support new cloud storage services and guarantee the file encryption cannot be bypassed. We have evaluated the efficacy of FileCrypt on a number of popular realworld cloud storage services. The results show that it can protect files on the public cloud with relatively low overheads.
  6. Content Distribution Networks (CDNs) manage their own caching or routing overlay networks to provide reliable and efficient content delivery services. Currently, CDNs have become one of the most important tools on the Internet. They have been responsible for the majority of today's Internet traffic. The performance of CDNs directly influences the experiences of end users. In this paper, we develop several analyses to figure out the key factors influencing the overall performance of a CDN. The primary results demonstrate that the caching overlays and the routing overlays both have their own influential factors affecting CDN performance. Our results also show that the transmission latency between a surrogate and a content owner is a critical factor determining the overall performance of routing overlays. Furthermore, we argue that the surrogate assignment policy of a routing overlay need to seriously take this latency into account. Our analysis results provide a context for the CDN community on preferable surrogate assignment solutions.
  7. It is critical in social network analysis to understand the underlying mechanisms of online information diffusion. Although there has been much progress on the influential factors that lead to online viral diffusion, little is known about the impact by public opinion. In this paper, we examine the relations between the public opinion among information propagators and the virality of online diffusion based on a large-scale real-world dataset. We propose a set of new metrics for public opinion in online diffusion to reveal their correlation with diffusion structural virality, and further apply our understanding to predict diffusion virality based on public opinion. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed analysis in the prediction of viral diffusion events.
  8. Searchable Encryption (SE) has been extensively examined by both academic and industry researchers. While many academic SE schemes show provable security, they usually expose some query information (e.g., search patterns) to achieve high efficiency. However, several inference attacks have exploited such leakage, e.g., a query recovery attack can convert opaque query trapdoors to their corresponding keywords based on some prior knowledge. On the other hand, many proposed SE schemes require significant modification of existing applications, which makes them less practical, weak in usability, and difficult to deploy. In this paper, we introduce a secure and practical SE scheme with provable security strength for cloud applications, called IDCrypt, which improves the search efficiency and enhanced the security strength of SE using symmetric cryptography. We further point out the main challenges in securely searching on multiple indexes and sharing encrypted data between multiple users. To address the above issues, we propose a token-adjustment scheme to preserve the search functionality among multi-indexes, and a key sharing scheme which combines Identity-Based Encryption (IBE) and Public-Key Encryption (PKE). Our experimental results show that the overhead of IDCrypt is fairly low.