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  1. Abstract

    Recent work has demonstrated that geometric deep learning methods such as graph neural networks (GNNs) are well suited to address a variety of reconstruction problems in high-energy particle physics. In particular, particle tracking data are naturally represented as a graph by identifying silicon tracker hits as nodes and particle trajectories as edges, given a set of hypothesized edges, edge-classifying GNNs identify those corresponding to real particle trajectories. In this work, we adapt the physics-motivated interaction network (IN) GNN toward the problem of particle tracking in pileup conditions similar to those expected at the high-luminosity Large Hadron Collider. Assuming idealizedmore »hit filtering at various particle momenta thresholds, we demonstrate the IN’s excellent edge-classification accuracy and tracking efficiency through a suite of measurements at each stage of GNN-based tracking: graph construction, edge classification, and track building. The proposed IN architecture is substantially smaller than previously studied GNN tracking architectures; this is particularly promising as a reduction in size is critical for enabling GNN-based tracking in constrained computing environments. Furthermore, the IN may be represented as either a set of explicit matrix operations or a message passing GNN. Efforts are underway to accelerate each representation via heterogeneous computing resources towards both high-level and low-latency triggering applications.

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  2. Efficient machine learning implementations optimized for inference in hardware have wide-ranging benefits, depending on the application, from lower inference latency to higher data throughput and reduced energy consumption. Two popular techniques for reducing computation in neural networks are pruning, removing insignificant synapses, and quantization, reducing the precision of the calculations. In this work, we explore the interplay between pruning and quantization during the training of neural networks for ultra low latency applications targeting high energy physics use cases. Techniques developed for this study have potential applications across many other domains. We study various configurations of pruning during quantization-aware training, whichmore »we term quantization-aware pruning , and the effect of techniques like regularization, batch normalization, and different pruning schemes on performance, computational complexity, and information content metrics. We find that quantization-aware pruning yields more computationally efficient models than either pruning or quantization alone for our task. Further, quantization-aware pruning typically performs similar to or better in terms of computational efficiency compared to other neural architecture search techniques like Bayesian optimization. Surprisingly, while networks with different training configurations can have similar performance for the benchmark application, the information content in the network can vary significantly, affecting its generalizability.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 9, 2022
  3. Abstract

    In general-purpose particle detectors, the particle-flow algorithm may be used to reconstruct a comprehensive particle-level view of the event by combining information from the calorimeters and the trackers, significantly improving the detector resolution for jets and the missing transverse momentum. In view of the planned high-luminosity upgrade of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), it is necessary to revisit existing reconstruction algorithms and ensure that both the physics and computational performance are sufficient in an environment with many simultaneous proton–proton interactions (pileup). Machine learning may offer a prospect for computationally efficient event reconstruction that is well-suited to heterogeneous computingmore »platforms, while significantly improving the reconstruction quality over rule-based algorithms for granular detectors. We introduce MLPF, a novel, end-to-end trainable, machine-learned particle-flow algorithm based on parallelizable, computationally efficient, and scalable graph neural network optimized using a multi-task objective on simulated events. We report the physics and computational performance of the MLPF algorithm on a Monte Carlo dataset of top quark–antiquark pairs produced in proton–proton collisions in conditions similar to those expected for the high-luminosity LHC. The MLPF algorithm improves the physics response with respect to a rule-based benchmark algorithm and demonstrates computationally scalable particle-flow reconstruction in a high-pileup environment.

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  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2022
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2022
  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 16, 2022
  7. Advancements in ultra-low-power tiny machine learning (TinyML) systems promise to unlock an entirely new class of smart applications. However, continued progress is limited by the lack of a widely accepted and easily reproducible benchmark for these systems. To meet this need, we present MLPerf Tiny, the first industry-standard benchmark suite for ultra-low-power tiny machine learning systems. The benchmark suite is the collaborative effort of more than 50 organizations from industry and academia and reflects the needs of the community. MLPerf Tiny measures the accuracy, latency, and energy of machine learning inference to properly evaluate the tradeoffs between systems. Additionally, MLPerfmore »Tiny implements a modular design that enables benchmark submitters to show the benefits of their product, regardless of where it falls on the ML deployment stack, in a fair and reproducible manner. The suite features four benchmarks: keyword spotting, visual wake words, image classification, and anomaly detection.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2022
  8. We describe the outcome of a data challenge conducted as part of the Dark Machines (https://www.darkmachines.org) initiative and the Les Houches 2019 workshop on Physics at TeV colliders. The challenged aims to detect signals of new physics at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) using unsupervised machine learning algorithms. First, we propose how an anomaly score could be implemented to define model-independent signal regions in LHC searches. We define and describe a large benchmark dataset, consisting of >1 billion simulated LHC events corresponding to 10\, fb^{-1} 10 f b − 1 of proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV.more »We then review a wide range of anomaly detection and density estimation algorithms, developed in the context of the data challenge, and we measure their performance in a set of realistic analysis environments. We draw a number of useful conclusions that will aid the development of unsupervised new physics searches during the third run of the LHC, and provide our benchmark dataset for future studies at https://www.phenoMLdata.org. Code to reproduce the analysis is provided at https://github.com/bostdiek/DarkMachines-UnsupervisedChallenge.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023