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  1. Abstract

    As climate change intensifies, resulting in more severe rainfall events, coastal cities globally are witnessing significant life and property losses. A growingly crucial component for flood prevention and relief are urban storm flood simulations, which aid in informed decision-making for emergency management. The vastness of data and the intricacies of 3D computations can make visualizing the urban flood effects on infrastructure daunting. This study offers a 3D visualization of the repercussions of hurricane storm surge flooding on Galveston, TX residences, illustrating the impact on each structure and road across varied storm conditions. We employ target detection to pinpoint house door locations, using door inundation as a metric to gauge potential flood damage. Within a GIS-based framework, we model the damage scope for residences exposed to varying storm intensities. Our research achieves three core goals: 1) Estimating the storm inundation levels on homes across different storm conditions; 2) Assessing first-floor elevations to categorize housing damages into three distinct groups; and 3) Through visualization, showcasing the efficacy of a proposed dike designed to shield Galveston Island from future storm surge and flood events.

     
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  2. Multi-omics data analysis has the potential to discover hidden molecular interactions, revealing potential regulatory and/or signal transduction pathways for cellular processes of interest when studying life and disease systems. One of critical challenges when dealing with real-world multi-omics data is that they may manifest heterogeneous structures and data quality as often existing data may be collected from different subjects under different conditions for each type of omics data. We propose a novel deep Bayesian generative model to efficiently infer a multi-partite graph encoding molecular interactions across such heterogeneous views, using a fused Gromov-Wasserstein (FGW) regularization between latent representations of corresponding views for integrative analysis. With such an optimal transport regularization in the deep Bayesian generative model, it not only allows incorporating view-specific side information, either with graph-structured or unstructured data in different views, but also increases the model flexibility with the distribution-based regularization. This allows efficient alignment of heterogeneous latent variable distributions to derive reliable interaction predictions compared to the existing point-based graph embedding methods. Our experiments on several real-world datasets demonstrate enhanced performance of MoReL in inferring meaningful interactions compared to existing baselines. 
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  3. Temporal networks representing a stream of timestamped edges are seemingly ubiquitous in the real world. However, the massive size and continuous nature of these networks make them fundamentally challenging to analyze and leverage for descriptive and predictive modeling tasks. In this work, we propose a general framework for temporal network sampling with unbiased estimation. We develop online, single-pass sampling algorithms, and unbiased estimators for temporal network sampling. The proposed algorithms enable fast, accurate, and memory-efficient statistical estimation of temporal network patterns and properties. In addition, we propose a temporally decaying sampling algorithm with unbiased estimators for studying networks that evolve in continuous time, where the strength of links is a function of time, and the motif patterns are temporally weighted. In contrast to the prior notion of a △ t -temporal motif, the proposed formulation and algorithms for counting temporally weighted motifs are useful for forecasting tasks in networks such as predicting future links, or a future time-series variable of nodes and links. Finally, extensive experiments on a variety of temporal networks from different domains demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms. A detailed ablation study is provided to understand the impact of the various components of the proposed framework. 
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  4. Despite advances in network security, attacks targeting mission critical systems and applications remain a significant problem for network and datacenter providers. Existing telemetry platforms detect volumetric attacks at terabit scales using approximation techniques and coarse grain analysis. However, the prevalence of low and slow attacks that require very little bandwidth, makes flow-state tracking critical to overall attack mitigation. Traffic queries deployed on network switches are often limited by hardware constraints, preventing them from carrying out flow tracking features required to detect stealthy attacks. Such attacks can go undetected in the midst of high traffic volumes. We design SmartWatch, a novel flow state tracking and flow logging system at line rate, using SmartNICs to optimize performance and simultaneously detect a number of stealthy attacks. SmartWatch leverages advances in switch based network telemetry platforms to process the bulk of the traffic and only forward suspicious traffic subsets to the SmartNIC. The programmable network switches perform coarse-grained traffic analysis while the SmartNIC conducts the finer-grained analysis which involves additional processing of the packet as a 'bump-in-the-wire'. A control loop between the SmartNIC and programmable switch tunes the queries performed in the switch to direct the most appropriate traffic subset to the SmartNIC. SmartWatch's cooperative monitoring approach yields 2.39 times better detection rate compared to existing platforms deployed on programmable switches. SmartWatch can detect covert timing channels and perform website fingerprinting more efficiently compared to standalone programmable switch solutions, relieving switch memory and control-plane processor resources. Compared to host-based approaches, SmartWatch can reduce the packet processing latency by 72.32%. 
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  5. null (Ed.)
    Networks are a natural representation of complex systems across the sciences, and higher-order dependencies are central to the understanding and modeling of these systems. However, in many practical applications such as online social networks, networks are massive, dynamic, and naturally streaming, where pairwise interactions among vertices become available one at a time in some arbitrary order. The massive size and streaming nature of these networks allow only partial observation, since it is infeasible to analyze the entire network. Under such scenarios, it is challenging to study the higher-order structural and connectivity patterns of streaming networks. In this work, we consider the fundamental problem of estimating the higher-order dependencies using adaptive sampling. We propose a novel adaptive, single-pass sampling framework and unbiased estimators for higher-order network analysis of large streaming networks. Our algorithms exploit adaptive techniques to identify edges that are highly informative for efficiently estimating the higher-order structure of streaming networks from small sample data. We also introduce a novel James-Stein shrinkage estimator to reduce the estimation error. Our approach is fully analytic, computationally efficient, and can be incrementally updated in a streaming setting. Numerical experiments on large networks show that our approach is superior to baseline methods. 
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  6. null (Ed.)
    High-throughput molecular profiling technologies have produced high-dimensional multi-omics data, enabling systematic understanding of living systems at the genome scale. Studying molecular interactions across different data types helps reveal signal transduction mechanisms across different classes of molecules. In this paper, we develop a novel Bayesian representation learning method that infers the relational interactions across multi-omics data types. Our method, Bayesian Relational Learning (BayReL) for multi-omics data integration, takes advantage of a priori known relationships among the same class of molecules, modeled as a graph at each corresponding view, to learn view-specific latent variables as well as a multi-partite graph that encodes the interactions across views. Our experiments on several real-world datasets demonstrate enhanced performance of BayReL in inferring meaningful interactions compared to existing baselines. 
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  7. The growing number of network functions drives the need to install increasing numbers of fine-grained packet classification rules in the network switches. However, this demand for rules is outstripping the size of switch memory. While much work has focused on compressing classification rules, most of this work proposes solutions operating in the memory of a single switch. This paper proposed, instead, a collaborative approach encompassing switches and network functions: we couple approximate classification at switches with fine-grained filtering where needed at network functions to accomplish overall classification. This architecture enables a trade-off between usage of (expensive) switch memory and (cheaper) downstream network bandwidth and network function resources. Our implementation uses approximate classification and Prefiltering to reduce switch memory usage. Our system can reduce memory significantly compared to a strawman approach, as shown by simulations of real traffic traces and rules. 
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  8. Stochastic recurrent neural networks with latent random variables of complex dependency structures have shown to be more successful in modeling sequential data than deterministic deep models. However, the majority of existing methods have limited expressive power due to the Gaussian assumption of latent variables. In this paper, we advocate learning implicit latent representations using semi-implicit variational inference to further increase model flexibility. Semi-implicit stochastic recurrent neural network (SIS-RNN) is developed to enrich inferred model posteriors that may have no analytic density functions, as long as independent random samples can be generated via reparameterization. Extensive experiments in different tasks on real-world datasets show that SIS-RNN outperforms the existing methods. 
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