skip to main content


Search for: All records

Creators/Authors contains: "Fabian, Zalan"

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. Deep learning models are prone to forgetting information learned in the past when trained on new data. This problem becomes even more pronounced in the context of federated learning (FL), where data is decentralized and subject to independent changes for each user. Continual Learning (CL) studies this so-called \textit{catastrophic forgetting} phenomenon primarily in centralized settings, where the learner has direct access to the complete training dataset. However, applying CL techniques to FL is not straightforward due to privacy concerns and resource limitations. This paper presents a framework for federated class incremental learning that utilizes a generative model to synthesize samples from past distributions instead of storing part of past data. Then, clients can leverage the generative model to mitigate catastrophic forgetting locally. The generative model is trained on the server using data-free methods at the end of each task without requesting data from clients. Therefore, it reduces the risk of data leakage as opposed to training it on the client's private data. We demonstrate significant improvements for the CIFAR-100 dataset compared to existing baselines. 
    more » « less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 31, 2024
  2. Quasi-Newton methods still face significant challenges in training large-scale neural networks due to additional compute costs in the Hessian related computations and instability issues in stochastic training. A well-known method, L-BFGS that efficiently approximates the Hessian using history parameter and gradient changes, suffers convergence instability in stochastic training. So far, attempts that adapt L-BFGS to large-scale stochastic training incur considerable extra overhead, which offsets its convergence benefits in wall-clock time. In this paper, we propose mL-BFGS, a lightweight momentum-based L-BFGS algorithm that paves the way for quasi-Newton (QN) methods in large-scale distributed deep neural network (DNN) optimization. mL-BFGS introduces a nearly cost-free momentum scheme into L-BFGS update and greatly reduces stochastic noise in the Hessian, therefore stabilizing convergence during stochastic optimization. For model training at a large scale, mL-BFGS approximates a block-wise Hessian, thus enabling distributing compute and memory costs across all computing nodes. We provide a supporting convergence analysis for mL-BFGS in stochastic settings. To investigate mL-BFGS’s potential in large-scale DNN training, we train benchmark neural models using mL-BFGS and compare performance with baselines (SGD, Adam, and other quasi-Newton methods). Results show that mL-BFGS achieves both noticeable iteration-wise and wall-clock speedup. 
    more » « less
  3. In accelerated MRI reconstruction, the anatomy of a patient is recovered from a set of under-sampled and noisy measurements. Deep learning approaches have been proven to be successful in solving this ill-posed inverse problem and are capable of producing very high quality reconstructions. However, current architectures heavily rely on convolutions, that are content-independent and have difficulties modeling long-range dependencies in images. Recently, Transformers, the workhorse of contemporary natural language processing, have emerged as powerful building blocks for a multitude of vision tasks. These models split input images into nonoverlapping patches, embed the patches into lower-dimensional tokens and utilize a self-attention mechanism that does not suffer from the aforementioned weaknesses of convolutional architectures. However, Transformers incur extremely high compute and memory cost when 1) the input image resolution is high and 2) when the image needs to be split into a large number of patches to preserve fine detail information, both of which are typical in low-level vision problems such as MRI reconstruction, having a compounding effect. To tackle these challenges, we propose HUMUS-Net, a hybrid architecture that combines the beneficial implicit bias and efficiency of convolutions with the power of Transformer blocks in an unrolled and multi-scale network. HUMUS-Net extracts high-resolution features via convolutional blocks and refines low-resolution features via a novel Transformer-based multi-scale feature extractor. Features from both levels are then synthesized into a high-resolution output reconstruction. Our network establishes new state of the art on the largest publicly available MRI dataset, the fastMRI dataset. We further demonstrate the performance of HUMUS-Net on two other popular MRI datasets and perform fine-grained ablation studies to validate our design. 
    more » « less
  4. null (Ed.)
    Deep neural networks have emerged as very successful tools for image restoration and reconstruction tasks. These networks are often trained end-to-end to directly reconstruct an image from a noisy or corrupted measurement of that image. To achieve state-of-the-art performance, training on large and diverse sets of images is considered critical. However, it is often difficult and/or expensive to collect large amounts of training images. Inspired by the success of Data Augmentation (DA) for classification problems, in this paper, we propose a pipeline for data augmentation for accelerated MRI reconstruction and study its effectiveness at reducing the required training data in a variety of settings. Our DA pipeline, MRAugment, is specifically designed to utilize the invariances present in medical imaging measurements as naive DA strategies that neglect the physics of the problem fail. Through extensive studies on multiple datasets we demonstrate that in the low-data regime DA prevents overfitting and can match or even surpass the state of the art while using significantly fewer training data, whereas in the high-data regime it has diminishing returns. Furthermore, our findings show that DA improves the robustness of the model against various shifts in the test distribution. 
    more » « less
  5. Deep neural networks have emerged as very successful tools for image restoration and reconstruction tasks. These networks are often trained end-to-end to directly reconstruct an image from a noisy or corrupted measurement of that image. To achieve state-of-the-art performance, training on large and diverse sets of images is considered critical. However, it is often difficult and/or expensive to collect large amounts of training images. Inspired by the success of Data Augmentation (DA) for classification problems, in this paper, we propose a pipeline for data augmentation for accelerated MRI reconstruction and study its effectiveness at reducing the required training data in a variety of settings. Our DA pipeline, MRAugment, is specifically designed to utilize the invariances present in medical imaging measurements as naive DA strategies that neglect the physics of the problem fail. Through extensive studies on multiple datasets we demonstrate that in the low-data regime DA prevents overfitting and can match or even surpass the state of the art while using significantly fewer training data, whereas in the high-data regime it has diminishing returns. Furthermore, our findings show that DA can improve the robustness of the model against various shifts in the test distribution. 
    more » « less
  6. Imaging 3D nano-structures at very high resolution is crucial in a variety of scientific fields. However, due to fundamental limitations of light propagation we can only measure the object indirectly via 2D intensity measurements of the 3D specimen through highly nonlinear projection mappings where a variety of information (including phase) is lost. Reconstruction therefore involves inverting highly nonlinear and seemingly non-invertible mappings. In this paper, we introduce a novel technique where the 3D object is directly reconstructed from an accurate non-linear propagation model. Furthermore, we characterize the ambiguities of this model and leverage a priori knowledge to mitigate their effect and also significantly reduce the required number of measurements and hence the acquisition time. We demonstrate the performance of our algorithm via numerical experiments aimed at nano-scale reconstruction of 3D integrated circuits. Moreover, we provide rigorous theoretical guarantees for convergence to stationarity. 
    more » « less