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  1. In December, 2020, Apple began requiring developers to disclose their data collection and use practices to generate a “privacy label” for their application. The use of mobile application Software Development Kits (SDKs) and third-party libraries, coupled with a typical lack of expertise in privacy, makes it challenging for developers to accurately report their data collection and use practices. In this work we discuss the design and evaluation of a tool to help iOS developers generate privacy labels. The tool combines static code analysis to identify likely data collection and use practices with interactive functionality designed to prompt developers to elucidatemore »analysis results and carefully reflect on their applications’ data practices. We conducted semi-structured interviews with iOS developers as they used an initial version of the tool. We discuss how these results motivated us to develop an enhanced software tool, Privacy Label Wiz, that more closely resembles interactions developers reported to be most useful in our semi-structured interviews. We present findings from our interviews and the enhanced tool motivated by our study. We also outline future directions for software tools to better assist developers communicating their mobile app’s data practices to different audiences.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2023
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2023
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  4. Abstract

    We consider the Kuramoto–Sivashinsky equation (KSE) on the two-dimensional torus in the presence of advection by a given background shear flow. Under the assumption that the shear has a finite number of critical points and there are linearly growing modes only in the direction of the shear, we prove global existence of solutions with data in$$L^2$$L2, using a bootstrap argument. The initial data can be taken arbitrarily large.

  5. “Notice and choice” is the predominant approach for data privacy protection today. There is considerable user-centered research on providing effective privacy notices but not enough guidance on designing privacy choices. Recent data privacy regulations worldwide established new requirements for privacy choices, but system practitioners struggle to implement legally compliant privacy choices that also provide users meaningful privacy control. We construct a design space for privacy choices based on a user-centered analysis of how people exercise privacy choices in real-world systems. This work contributes a conceptual framework that considers privacy choice as a user-centered process as well as a taxonomy formore »practitioners to design meaningful privacy choices in their systems. We also present a use case of how we leverage the design space to finalize the design decisions for a real-world privacy choice platform, the Internet of Things (IoT) Assistant, to provide meaningful privacy control in the IoT.« less
  6. Abstract Cameras are everywhere, and are increasingly coupled with video analytics software that can identify our face, track our mood, recognize what we are doing, and more. We present the results of a 10-day in-situ study designed to understand how people feel about these capabilities, looking both at the extent to which they expect to encounter them as part of their everyday activities and at how comfortable they are with the presence of such technologies across a range of realistic scenarios. Results indicate that while some widespread deployments are expected by many (e.g., surveillance in public spaces), others are not,more »with some making people feel particularly uncomfortable. Our results further show that individuals’ privacy preferences and expectations are complicated and vary with a number of factors such as the purpose for which footage is captured and analyzed, the particular venue where it is captured, and whom it is shared with. Finally, we discuss the implications of people’s rich and diverse preferences on opt-in or opt-out rights for the collection and use (including sharing) of data associated with these video analytics scenarios as mandated by regulations. Because of the user burden associated with the large number of privacy decisions people could be faced with, we discuss how new types of privacy assistants could possibly be configured to help people manage these decisions.« less
  7. In addition to ocean acidification, a significant recent warming trend in Chinese coastal waters has received much attention. However, studies of the combined effects of warming and acidification on natural coastal phytoplankton assemblages here are scarce. We conducted a continuous incubation experiment with a natural spring phytoplankton assemblage collected from the Bohai Sea near Tianjin. Experimental treatments used a full factorial combination of temperature (7 and 11°C) and pCO 2 (400 and 800 ppm) treatments. Results suggest that changes in pCO 2 and temperature had both individual and interactive effects on phytoplankton species composition and elemental stoichiometry. Warming mainly favoredmore »the accumulation of picoplankton and dinoflagellate biomass. Increased pCO 2 significantly increased particulate organic carbon to particulate organic phosphorus (C:P) and particulate organic carbon to biogenic silica (C:BSi) ratios, and decreased total diatom abundance; in the meanwhile, higher pCO 2 significantly increased the ratio of centric to pennate diatom abundance. Warming and increased pCO 2 both greatly decreased the proportion of diatoms to dinoflagellates. The highest chlorophyll a biomass was observed in the high pCO 2 , high temperature phytoplankton assemblage, which also had the slowest sinking rate of all treatments. Overall, there were significant interactive effects of increased pCO 2 and warming on dinoflagellate abundance, pennate diatom abundance, diatom vs. dinoflagellates ratio and the centric vs. pennate ratio. These findings suggest that future ocean acidification and warming trends may individually and cumulatively affect coastal biogeochemistry and carbon fluxes through shifts in phytoplankton species composition and sinking rates.« less