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  1. We present a data-driven framework for strategy synthesis for partially-known switched stochastic systems. The properties of the system are specified using linear temporal logic (LTL) over finite traces (LTLf), which is as expressive as LTL and enables interpretations over finite behaviors. The framework first learns the unknown dynamics via Gaussian process regression. Then, it builds a formal abstraction of the switched system in terms of an uncertain Markov model, namely an Interval Markov Decision Process (IMDP), by accounting for both the stochastic behavior of the system and the uncertainty in the learning step. Then, we synthesize a strategy on the resulting IMDP that maximizes the satisfaction probability of the LTLf specification and is robust against all the uncertainties in the abstraction. This strategy is then refined into a switching strategy for the original stochastic system. We show that this strategy is near-optimal and provide a bound on its distance (error) to the optimal strategy. We experimentally validate our framework on various case studies, including both linear and non-linear switched stochastic systems.
  2. We propose a predictive runtime monitoring approach for linear systems with stochastic disturbances. The goal of the monitor is to decide if there exists a possible sequence of control inputs over a given time horizon to ensure that a safety property is maintained with a sufficiently high probability. We derive an efficient algorithm for performing the predictive monitoring in real time, specifically for linear time invariant (LTI) systems driven by stochastic disturbances. The algorithm implicitly defines a control envelope set such that if the current control input to the system lies in this set, there exists a future strategy over a time horizon consisting of the next N steps to guarantee the safety property of interest. As a result, the proposed monitor is oblivious of the actual controller, and therefore, applicable even in the presence of complex control systems including highly adaptive controllers. Furthermore, we apply our proposed approach to monitor whether a UAV will respect a “geofence” defined by a geographical region over which the vehicle may operate. To achieve this, we construct a data-driven linear model of the UAVs dynamics, while carefully modeling the uncertainties due to wind, GPS errors and modeling errors as time-varying disturbances. Using realisticmore »data obtained from flight tests, we demonstrate the advantages and drawbacks of the predictive monitoring approach.« less