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  1. Abstract

    We compare systems with single giant planets to systems with multiple giant planets using a catalog of planets from a high-precision radial velocity survey of FGKM stars. Our comparison focuses on orbital properties, planet masses, and host-star properties. We use hierarchical methods to model the orbital eccentricity distributions of giant singles and giant multiples, and find that the distributions are distinct. The multiple giant planets typically have moderate eccentricities and their eccentricity distribution extends toe= 0.47 (90th percentile), while the single giant planets have a pileup of nearly circular orbits and a long tail that extends toe= 0.77. We determine that the stellar hosts of multiple giants are distinctly more metal rich than the hosts of solitary giants, with respective mean metallicities of 0.228 ± 0.027 versus 0.129 ± 0.019 dex. We measure the distinct occurrence distributions of single and multiple giants with respect to orbital separation, and find that single gas giants have a ∼2.3σsignificant hot Jupiter (a< 0.06) pileup not seen among multigiant systems. We find that the median mass (Msini) of giants in multiples is nearly double that of single giants (1.71MJversus 0.92MJ). We find that giant planets in the same system have correlated masses, analogous to the “peas in a pod” effect seen among less-massive planets.

     
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  2. Abstract

    Extreme precision radial velocity (EPRV) measurements contend with internal noise (instrumental systematics) and external noise (intrinsic stellar variability) on the road to 10 cm s−1“exo-Earth” sensitivity. Both of these noise sources are well-probed using “Sun-as-a-star” RVs and cross-instrument comparisons. We built the Solar Calibrator (SoCal), an autonomous system that feeds stable, disk-integrated sunlight to the recently commissioned Keck Planet Finder (KPF) at the W. M. Keck Observatory. With SoCal, KPF acquires signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) ∼ 1200,R= 98,000 optical (445–870 nm) spectra of the Sun in 5 s exposures at unprecedented cadence for an EPRV facility using KPF’s fast readout mode (<16 s between exposures). Daily autonomous operation is achieved by defining an operations loop using state machine logic. Data affected by clouds are automatically flagged using a reliable quality control metric derived from simultaneous irradiance measurements. Comparing solar data across the growing global network of EPRV spectrographs with solar feeds will allow EPRV teams to disentangle internal and external noise sources and benchmark spectrograph performance. To facilitate this, all SoCal data products are immediately available to the public on the Keck Observatory Archive. We compared SoCal RVs to contemporaneous RVs from NEID, the only other immediately public EPRV solar data set. We find agreement at the 30–40 cm s−1level on timescales of several hours, which is comparable to the combined photon-limited precision. Data from SoCal were also used to assess a detector problem and wavelength calibration inaccuracies associated with KPF during early operations. Long-term SoCal operations will collect upwards of 1000 solar spectra per six-hour day using KPF’s fast readout mode, enabling stellar activity studies at high S/N on our nearest solar-type star.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  3. Abstract

    We confirm a massive sub-Neptune-sized planet on aP= 22.8 days orbit around the star TOI-1824 (Teff= 5200 K,V= 9.7 mag). TESS first identified TOI-1824 b (formerly TOI-1824.01) as an object of interest in 2020 April after two transits in Sector 22 were matched with a single transit in Sector 21. TOI-1824 was subsequently targeted for ground-based Doppler monitoring with Keck-HIRES and APF-Levy. Using a joint model of the TESS photometry, radial velocities, and CaiiH and K emission measurements as an activity indicator, we find that TOI-1824 b is an unusually dense sub-Neptune. The planet has a radiusRp= 2.63 ± 0.15Rand massMp= 18.5 ± 3.2M, implying a bulk density of 5.6 ± 1.4 g cm−3. TOI-1824 b's mass and radius situate it near a small group of “superdense sub-Neptunes” (Rp≲ 3RandMp≳ 20M). While the formation mechanism of superdense sub-Neptunes is a mystery, one possible explanation is the constructive collision of primordial icy cores; such giant impacts would drive atmospheric escape and could help explain these planets' apparent lack of massive envelopes. We discuss TOI-1824 b in the context of these overdense planets, whose unique location in the exoplanet mass–radius plane make them a potentially valuable tracer of planet formation.

     
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  4. Abstract

    An intriguing pattern among exoplanets is the lack of detected planets between approximately 1.5Rand 2.0R. One proposed explanation for this “radius gap” is the photoevaporation of planetary atmospheres, a theory that can be tested by studying individual planetary systems. Kepler-105 is an ideal system for such testing due to the ordering and sizes of its planets. Kepler-105 is a Sun-like star that hosts two planets straddling the radius gap in a rare architecture with the larger planet closer to the host star (Rb= 2.53 ± 0.07R,Pb= 5.41 days,Rc= 1.44 ± 0.04R,Pc= 7.13 days). If photoevaporation sculpted the atmospheres of these planets, then Kepler-105b would need to be much more massive than Kepler-105c to retain its atmosphere, given its closer proximity to the host star. To test this hypothesis, we simultaneously analyzed radial velocities and transit-timing variations of the Kepler-105 system, measuring disparate masses ofMb= 10.8 ± 2.3M(ρb= 3.68 ± 0.84 g cm−3) andMc= 5.6 ± 1.2M(ρc= 10.4 ± 2.39 g cm−3). Based on these masses, the difference in gas envelope content of the Kepler-105 planets could be entirely due to photoevaporation (in 76% of scenarios), although other mechanisms like core-powered mass loss could have played a role for some planet albedos.

     
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  5. Abstract

    The extreme environments of ultra-short-period planets (USPs) make excellent laboratories to study how exoplanets obtain, lose, retain, and/or regain gaseous atmospheres. We present the confirmation and characterization of the USP TOI-1347 b, a 1.8 ± 0.1Rplanet on a 0.85 day orbit that was detected with photometry from the TESS mission. We measured radial velocities of the TOI-1347 system using Keck/HIRES and HARPS-N and found the USP to be unusually massive at 11.1 ± 1.2M. The measured mass and radius of TOI-1347 b imply an Earth-like bulk composition. A thin H/He envelope (>0.01% by mass) can be ruled out at high confidence. The system is between 1 and 1.8 Gyr old; therefore, intensive photoevaporation should have concluded. We detected a tentative phase-curve variation (3σ) and a secondary eclipse (2σ) in TESS photometry, which, if confirmed, could indicate the presence of a high-mean-molecular-weight atmosphere. We recommend additional optical and infrared observations to confirm the presence of an atmosphere and investigate its composition.

     
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  6. Abstract

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) has discovered hundreds of new worlds, with TESS planet candidates now outnumbering the total number of confirmed planets from Kepler. Owing to differences in survey design, TESS continues to provide planets that are better suited for subsequent follow-up studies, including mass measurement through radial velocity (RV) observations, compared to Kepler targets. In this work, we present the TESS-Keck Survey’s (TKS) Mass Catalog: a uniform analysis of all TKS RV survey data that has resulted in mass constraints for 126 planets and candidate signals. This includes 58 mass measurements that have reached ≥5σprecision. We confirm or validate 32 new planets from the TESS mission either by significant mass measurement (15) or statistical validation (17), and we find no evidence of likely false positives among our entire sample. This work also serves as a data release for all previously unpublished TKS survey data, including 9,204 RV measurements and associated activity indicators over our three-year survey. We took the opportunity to assess the performance of our survey and found that we achieved many of our goals, including measuring the mass of 38 small (<4R) planets, nearly achieving the TESS mission’s basic science requirement. In addition, we evaluated the performance of the Automated Planet Finder as survey support and observed meaningful constraints on system parameters, due to its more uniform phase coverage. Finally, we compared our measured masses to those predicted by commonly used mass–radius relations and investigated evidence of systematic bias.

     
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  7. Abstract We use a high-precision radial velocity survey of FGKM stars to study the conditional occurrence of two classes of planets: close-in small planets (0.023–1 au, 2–30 M ⊕ ) and distant giant planets (0.23–10 au, 30–6000 M ⊕ ). We find that 41 − 13 + 15 % of systems with a close-in, small planet also host an outer giant, compared to 17.6 − 1.9 + 2.4 % for stars irrespective of small planet presence. This implies that small planet hosts may be enhanced in outer giant occurrences compared to all stars with 1.7 σ significance. Conversely, we estimate that 42 − 13 + 17 % of cold giant hosts also host an inner small planet, compared to 27.6 − 4.8 + 5.8 % of stars irrespective of cold giant presence. We also find that more massive and close-in giant planets are not associated with small inner planets. Specifically, our sample indicates that small planets are less likely to have outer giant companions more massive than approximately 120 M ⊕ and within 0.3–3 au, than to have less massive or more distant giant companions, with ∼2.2 σ confidence. This implies that massive gas giants within 0.3–3 au may suppress inner small planet formation. Additionally, we compare the host-star metallicity distributions for systems with only small planets and those with both small planets and cold giants. In agreement with previous studies, we find that stars in our survey that only host small planets have a metallicity distribution that is consistent with the broader solar-metallicity-median sample, while stars that host both small planets and gas giants are distinctly metal rich with ∼2.3 σ confidence. 
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  8. Abstract

    We present a radial velocity (RV) analysis of TOI-1136, a bright Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) system with six confirmed transiting planets, and a seventh single-transiting planet candidate. All planets in the system are amenable to transmission spectroscopy, making TOI-1136 one of the best targets for intra-system comparison of exoplanet atmospheres. TOI-1136 is young (∼700 Myr), and the system exhibits transit timing variations (TTVs). The youth of the system contributes to high stellar variability on the order of 50 m s−1, much larger than the likely RV amplitude of any of the transiting exoplanets. Utilizing 359 High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer and Automated Planet Finder RVs collected as part of the TESS-Keck Survey, and 51 High-Accuracy Radial velocity Planetary Searcher North RVs, we experiment with a joint TTV-RV fit. With seven possible transiting planets, TTVs, more than 400 RVs, and a stellar activity model, we posit that we may be presenting the most complex mass recovery of an exoplanet system in the literature to date. By combining TTVs and RVs, we minimized Gaussian process overfitting and retrieved new masses for this system: (mb−g=3.500.7+0.8,6.321.3+1.1,8.351.6+1.8,6.071.01+1.09,9.73.7+3.9,5.63.2+4.1M). We are unable to significantly detect the mass of the seventh planet candidate in the RVs, but we are able to loosely constrain a possible orbital period near 80 days. Future TESS observations might confirm the existence of a seventh planet in the system, better constrain the masses and orbital properties of the known exoplanets, and generally shine light on this scientifically interesting system.

     
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  9. Abstract

    We report the discovery and confirmation of the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) single-transit, warm and dense sub-Saturn, TIC 139270665 b. This planet is unusually dense for its size: with a bulk density of 2.13 g cm−3(0.645RJ, 0.463MJ), it is the densest warm sub-Saturn of the TESS family. It orbits a metal-rich G2 star. We also found evidence of a second planet, TIC 139270665 c, with a longer period of1010220+780days and minimum massMPsiniof4.890.37+0.66MJ. First clues of TIC 139270665 b’s existence were found by citizen scientists inspecting TESS photometric data from sector 47 in 2022 January. Radial velocity measurements from the Automated Planet Finder combined with TESS photometry and spectral energy distributions viaEXOFASTv2system modeling suggested a23.6240.031+0.030day orbital period for TIC 139270665 b and also showed evidence for the second planet. Based on this estimated period, we mobilized the Unistellar citizen science network for photometric follow-up, capitalizing on their global distribution to capture a second transit of TIC 139270665 b. This citizen science effort also served as a test bed for an education initiative that integrates young students into modern astrophysics data collection. The Unistellar photometry did not definitively detect a second transit, but did enable us to further constrain the planet’s period. As a transiting, warm, and dense sub-Saturn, TIC 139270665 b represents an interesting laboratory for further study to enhance our models of planetary formation and evolution.

     
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  10. Abstract The observed correlation between outer giant planets and inner super-Earths is emerging as an important constraint on planet formation theories. In this study, we focus on Kepler-167, which is currently the only system known to contain both inner transiting super-Earths and a confirmed outer transiting gas giant companion beyond 1 au. Using long-term radial velocity monitoring, we measure the mass of the gas giant Kepler-167e ( P = 1071 days) to be 1.01 − 0.15 + 0.16 M J , thus confirming it as a Jupiter analog. We refit the Kepler photometry to obtain updated radii for all four planets. Using a planetary structure model, we estimate that Kepler-167e contains 66 ± 19 M ⊕ of solids and is significantly enriched in metals relative to its solar-metallicity host star. We use these new constraints to explore the broader question of how systems like Kepler-167 form in the pebble accretion framework for giant planet core formation. We utilize simple disk evolution models to demonstrate that more massive and metal-rich disks, which are the most favorable sites for giant planet formation, can also deliver enough solids to the inner disk to form systems of super-Earths. We use these same models to constrain the nature of Kepler-167's protoplanetary disk and find that it likely contained ≳300 M ⊕ of dust and was ≳40 au in size. These values overlap with the upper end of the observed dust mass and size distributions of Class 0 and I disks and are also consistent with the observed occurrence rate of Jupiter analogs around Sun-like stars. 
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