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  1. Abstract We conducted a mesocosm experiment to examine how ocean acidification (OA) affects communities of prokaryotes and eukaryotes growing on single‐use drinking bottles in subtropical eutrophic waters of the East China Sea. Based on 16S rDNA gene sequencing, simulated high CO 2 significantly altered the prokaryotic community, with the relative abundance of the phylum Planctomycetota increasing by 49%. Under high CO 2 , prokaryotes in the plastisphere had enhanced nitrogen dissimilation and ureolysis, raising the possibility that OA may modify nutrient cycling in subtropical eutrophic waters. The relative abundance of pathogenic and animal parasite bacteria also increased under simulated high CO 2 . Our results show that elevated CO 2 levels significantly affected several animal taxa based on 18S rDNA gene sequencing. For example, Mayorella amoebae were highly resistant, whereas Labyrinthula were sensitive to OA. Thus, OA may alter plastisphere food chains in subtropical eutrophic waters. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2024
  2. Abstract. Trichodesmium species, as a group of photosynthetic N2 fixers(diazotrophs), play an important role in the marine biogeochemical cycles ofnitrogen and carbon, especially in oligotrophic waters. How ongoing oceanwarming may interact with light availability to affect Trichodesmium is not yet clear. Wegrew Trichodesmium erythraeum IMS 101 at three temperature levels of 23, 27, and 31∘C undergrowth-limiting and growth-saturating light levels of 50 and 160 µmol quanta m−2 s−1, respectively, for at least 10 generations and thenmeasured physiological performance, including the specific growth rate, N2fixation rate, and photosynthesis. Light availability significantly modulatedthe growth response of Trichodesmium to temperature, with the specific growth ratepeaking at ∼27∘C under the light-saturatingconditions, while growth of light-limited cultures was non-responsive acrossthe tested temperatures (23, 27, and 31∘C). Short-term thermalresponses for N2 fixation indicated that both high growth temperatureand light intensity increased the optimum temperature (Topt) forN2 fixation and decreased its susceptibility to supra-optimaltemperatures (deactivation energy – Eh). Simultaneously, alllight-limited cultures with low Topt and high Eh were unable tosustain N2 fixation during short-term exposure to high temperatures (33–34∘C) that are not lethal for the cells grown underlight-saturating conditions. Our results imply that Trichodesmium spp. growing under lowlight levels while distributed deep in the euphotic zone or under cloudyweather conditions might be less sensitive to long-term temperature changesthat occur on the timescale of multiple generations but are more susceptible toabrupt (less than one generation time span) temperature changes, such asthose induced by cyclones and heat waves. 
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  3. Abstract. Marine phytoplankton such as bloom-forming, calcite-producingcoccolithophores, are naturally exposed to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR,280–400nm) in the ocean's upper mixed layers. Nevertheless, the effects ofincreasing carbon dioxide (CO2)-induced ocean acidification and warming have rarelybeen investigated in the presence of UVR. We examined calcification andphotosynthetic carbon fixation performance in the most cosmopolitancoccolithophorid, Emiliania huxleyi, grown under high(1000µatm, HC; pHT: 7.70) and low (400µatm,LC; pHT: 8.02) CO2 levels, at 15C,20C and 24C with or without UVR. The HCtreatment did not affect photosynthetic carbon fixation at 15C,but significantly enhanced it with increasing temperature. Exposure to UVRinhibited photosynthesis, with higher inhibition by UVA (320–395nm) thanUVB (295–320nm), except in the HC and 24C-grown cells, in whichUVB caused more inhibition than UVA. A reduced thickness of the coccolith layerin the HC-grown cells appeared to be responsible for the UV-inducedinhibition, and an increased repair rate of UVA-derived damage in theHC–high-temperature grown cells could be responsible for lowered UVA-induced inhibition.While calcification was reduced with elevated CO2 concentration,exposure to UVB or UVA affected the process differentially, with the formerinhibiting it and the latter enhancing it. UVA-induced stimulation of calcification washigher in the HC-grown cells at 15 and 20C, whereas at24C observed enhancement was not significant. The calcificationto photosynthesis ratio (CalPho ratio) was lower in the HC treatment,and increasing temperature also lowered the value. However, at 20 and24C, exposure to UVR significantly increased the CalPhoratio, especially in HC-grown cells, by up to 100%. This implies thatUVR can counteract the negative effects of the “greenhouse” treatment onthe CalPho ratio; hence, UVR may be a key stressor when considering theimpacts of future greenhouse conditions on E. huxleyi.

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  4. Abstract

    Increased stratification and mixed layer shoaling of the surface ocean resulting from warming can lead to exposure of marine dinitrogen (N2)‐fixing cyanobacteria to higher levels of inhibitory ultraviolet (UV) radiation. These same processes also reduce vertically advected supplies of the potentially limiting nutrient phosphorus (P) to N2fixers. It is currently unknown how UV inhibition and P limitation interact to affect the biogeochemical cycles of nitrogen and carbon in these biogeochemically critical microbes. We investigated the responses of the important and widespread marine N2‐fixing cyanobacteriaCrocosphaera(strain WH0005) andTrichodesmium(strains IMS 101 and GBR) to UV‐A and UV‐B under P‐replete and P‐limited conditions. Growth, N2fixation, and carbon dioxide (CO2) fixation rates ofTrichodesmiumIMS 101 andCrocosphaerawere negatively affected by UV exposure. This inhibition was greater forTrichodesmiumIMS 101 than forCrocosphaera, which fixes N2only during the night and so avoids direct UV damage. Negative effects of UV on both IMS 101 andCrocosphaerawere less in P‐limited cultures than in P‐replete cultures. In contrast, no UV inhibition was observed in GBR, regardless of P availability. UV inhibition was related to different amounts of UV‐absorbing compounds produced by these isolates. Responses to UV radiation and P availability interactions were taxon‐specific, but our results indicated that in general, UV radiation effects onTrichodesmiumandCrocosphaerarange from negative to neutral. UV inhibition and its interactions with P limitation may thus have a substantial influence on the present day and future nitrogen and carbon cycles of the ocean.

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