skip to main content

Attention:

The NSF Public Access Repository (NSF-PAR) system and access will be unavailable from 11:00 PM ET on Thursday, June 13 until 2:00 AM ET on Friday, June 14 due to maintenance. We apologize for the inconvenience.


Search for: All records

Creators/Authors contains: "Gebhardt, Karl"

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. Abstract

    We present 0.″22-resolution Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of CO(2−1) emission from the circumnuclear gas disk in the red nugget relic galaxy PGC 11179. The disk shows regular rotation, with projected velocities near the center of 400 km s−1. We assume the CO emission originates from a dynamically cold, thin disk and fit gas-dynamical models directly to the ALMA data. In addition, we explore systematic uncertainties by testing the impacts of various model assumptions on our results. The supermassive black hole (BH) mass (MBH) is measured to beMBH= (1.91 ± 0.04 [1σstatistical]0.51+0.11[systematic]) × 109M, and theH-band stellar mass-to-light ratioM/LH= 1.620 ± 0.004 [1σstatistical]0.107+0.211[systematic]M/L. ThisMBHis consistent with the BH mass−stellar velocity dispersion relation but over-massive compared to the BH mass−bulge luminosity relation by a factor of 3.7. PGC 11179 is part of a sample of local compact early-type galaxies that are plausible relics ofz∼ 2 red nuggets, and its behavior relative to the scaling relations echoes that of three relic galaxy BHs previously measured with stellar dynamics. These over-massive BHs could suggest that BHs gain most of their mass before their host galaxies do. However, our results could also be explained by greater intrinsic scatter at the high-mass end of the scaling relations, or by systematic differences in gas- and stellar-dynamical methods. AdditionalMBHmeasurements in the sample, including independent cross-checks between molecular gas- and stellar-dynamical methods, will advance our understanding of the co-evolution of BHs and their host galaxies.

     
    more » « less
  2. Abstract

    The Hobby–Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX) is designed to detect and measure the redshifts of more than 1 million Lyαemitting galaxies (LAEs) 1.88 <z< 3.52. In addition to its cosmological measurements, these data enable studies of Lyαspectral profiles and the underlying radiative transfer. Using the roughly half a million LAEs in the HETDEX Data Release 3, we stack various subsets to obtain the typical Lyαprofile for thez∼ 2–3 epoch and to understand their physical properties. We find clear absorption wings around Lyαemission, which extend ∼2000 km s−1both redward and blueward of the central line. Using far-UV spectra of nearby (0.002 <z< 0.182) LAEs in the COS Legacy Archive Spectroscopic Survey treasury and optical/near-IR spectra of 2.8 <z< 6.7 LAEs in the Multi Unit Spectroscopic-Wide survey, we observe absorption profiles in both redshift regimes. Dividing the sample by volume density shows that the troughs increase in higher-density regions. This trend suggests that the depth of the absorption is dependent on the local density of objects near the LAE, a geometry that is similar to damped Lyαsystems. Simple simulations of Lyαradiative transfer can produce similar troughs due to absorption of light from background sources by Higas surrounding the LAEs.

     
    more » « less
  3. Abstract We used data from the Hobby–Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX) to study the incidence of AGN in continuum-selected galaxies at z ∼ 3. From optical and infrared imaging in the 24 deg 2 Spitzer HETDEX Exploratory Large Area survey, we constructed a sample of photometric-redshift selected z ∼ 3 galaxies. We extracted HETDEX spectra at the position of 716 of these sources and used machine-learning methods to identify those which exhibited AGN-like features. The dimensionality of the spectra was reduced using an autoencoder, and the latent space was visualized through t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding. Gaussian mixture models were employed to cluster the encoded data and a labeled data set was used to label each cluster as either AGN, stars, high-redshift galaxies, or low-redshift galaxies. Our photometric redshift (photo z ) sample was labeled with an estimated 92% overall accuracy, an AGN accuracy of 83%, and an AGN contamination of 5%. The number of identified AGN was used to measure an AGN fraction for different magnitude bins. The ultraviolet (UV) absolute magnitude where the AGN fraction reaches 50% is M UV = −23.8. When combined with results in the literature, our measurements of AGN fraction imply that the bright end of the galaxy luminosity function exhibits a power law rather than exponential decline, with a relatively shallow faint-end slope for the z ∼ 3 AGN luminosity function. 
    more » « less
  4. Abstract

    Supernova (SN) 2023ixf was discovered on 2023 May 19. The host galaxy, M101, was observed by the Hobby–Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment collaboration over the period 2020 April 30–2020 July 10, using the Visible Integral-field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (3470 ≲λ≲ 5540 Å) on the 10 m Hobby–Eberly Telescope. The fiber filling factor within ±30″ of SN 2023ixf is 80% with a spatial resolution of 1″. Ther< 5.″5 surroundings are 100% covered. This allows us to analyze the spatially resolved preexplosion local environments of SN 2023ixf with nebular emission lines. The two-dimensional maps of the extinction and the star formation rate (SFR) surface density (ΣSFR) show weak increasing trends in the radial distributions within ther< 5.″5 regions, suggesting lower values of extinction and SFR in the vicinity of the progenitor of SN 2023ixf. The median extinction and that of the surface density of SFR withinr< 3″ areE(BV) = 0.06 ± 0.14, andΣSFR=105.44±0.66Myr1arcsec2.There is no significant change in extinction before and after the explosion. The gas metallicity does not change significantly with the separation from SN 2023ixf. The metal-rich branch of theR23calculations indicates that the gas metallicity around SN 2023ixf is similar to the solar metallicity (∼Z). The archival deep images from the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHTLS) show a clear detection of the progenitor of SN 2023ixf in thezband at 22.778 ± 0.063 mag, but nondetections in the remaining four bands of CFHTLS (u,g,r,i). The results suggest a massive progenitor of ≈22M.

     
    more » « less
  5. Abstract

    We present analysis using a citizen science campaign to improve the cosmological measures from the Hobby–Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). The goal of HETDEX is to measure the Hubble expansion rate,H(z), and angular diameter distance,DA(z), atz= 2.4, each to percent-level accuracy. This accuracy is determined primarily from the total number of detected Lyαemitters (LAEs), the false positive rate due to noise, and the contamination due to [Oii] emitting galaxies. This paper presents the citizen science project, Dark Energy Explorers (https://www.zooniverse.org/projects/erinmc/dark-energy-explorers), with the goal of increasing the number of LAEs and decreasing the number of false positives due to noise and the [Oii] galaxies. Initial analysis shows that citizen science is an efficient and effective tool for classification most accurately done by the human eye, especially in combination with unsupervised machine learning. Three aspects from the citizen science campaign that have the most impact are (1) identifying individual problems with detections, (2) providing a clean sample with 100% visual identification above a signal-to-noise cut, and (3) providing labels for machine-learning efforts. Since the end of 2022, Dark Energy Explorers has collected over three and a half million classifications by 11,000 volunteers in over 85 different countries around the world. By incorporating the results of the Dark Energy Explorers, we expect to improve the accuracy on theDA(z) andH(z) parameters atz= 2.″4 by 10%–30%. While the primary goal is to improve on HETDEX, Dark Energy Explorers has already proven to be a uniquely powerful tool for science advancement and increasing accessibility to science worldwide.

     
    more » « less
  6. Abstract The Hobby–Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX) is an untargeted spectroscopic survey that aims to measure the expansion rate of the universe at z ∼ 2.4 to 1% precision for both H ( z ) and D A ( z ). HETDEX is in the process of mapping in excess of one million Ly α emitting (LAE) galaxies and a similar number of lower- z galaxies as a tracer of the large-scale structure. The success of the measurement is predicated on the post-observation separation of galaxies with Ly α emission from the lower- z interloping galaxies, primarily [O ii ], with low contamination and high recovery rates. The Emission Line eXplorer (ELiXer) is the principal classification tool for HETDEX, providing a tunable balance between contamination and completeness as dictated by science needs. By combining multiple selection criteria, ELiXer improves upon the 20 Å rest-frame equivalent width cut commonly used to distinguish LAEs from lower- z [O ii ] emitting galaxies. Despite a spectral resolving power, R ∼ 800, that cannot resolve the [O ii ] doublet, we demonstrate the ability to distinguish LAEs from foreground galaxies with 98.1% accuracy. We estimate a contamination rate of Ly α by [O ii ] of 1.2% and a Ly α recovery rate of 99.1% using the default ELiXer configuration. These rates meet the HETDEX science requirements. 
    more » « less
  7. Abstract

    We investigate the stellar mass–black hole mass (*BH) relation with type 1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) down toBH=107M, corresponding to a ≃ −21 absolute magnitude in rest-frame ultraviolet, atz= 2–2.5. Exploiting the deep and large-area spectroscopic survey of the Hobby–Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX), we identify 66 type 1 AGNs withBHranging from 107–1010Mthat are measured with single-epoch virial method using Civemission lines detected in the HETDEX spectra.*of the host galaxies are estimated from optical to near-infrared photometric data taken with Spitzer, the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, and ground-based 4–8 m class telescopes byCIGALEspectral energy distribution (SED) fitting. We further assess the validity of SED fitting in two cases by host-nuclear decomposition performed through surface brightness profile fitting on spatially resolved host galaxies with the James Webb Space Telescope/NIRCam CEERS data. We obtain the*BHrelation covering the unexplored low-mass ranges ofBH107108M, and conduct forward modeling to fully account for the selection biases and observational uncertainties. The intrinsic*BHrelation atz∼ 2 has a moderate positive offset of 0.52 ± 0.14 dex from the local relation, suggestive of more efficient black hole growth at higher redshift even in the low-mass regime ofBH107108M. Our*BHrelation is inconsistent with theBHsuppression at the low-*regime predicted by recent hydrodynamic simulations at a 98% confidence level, suggesting that feedback in the low-mass systems may be weaker than those produced in hydrodynamic simulations.

     
    more » « less
  8. Abstract

    We have extracted 636 spectra taken at the positions of 583 transient sources from the third data release of the Hobby–Eberly Telescope Dark Energy eXperiment (HETDEX). The transients were discovered by the Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) during 2018–2022. The HETDEX spectra provide a potential means to obtain classifications for a large number of objects found by photometric surveys for free. We attempt to explore and classify the spectra by utilizing several template-matching techniques. We have identified two transient sources, ZTF20aatpoos = AT 2020fiz and ZTF19abdkelq, as supernova (SN) candidates. We classify AT 2020fiz as a Type IIP SN observed ∼10 days after explosion, and we propose ZTF19abdkelq as a likely Type Ia SN caught ∼40 days after maximum light. ZTF photometry of these two sources are consistent with their classifications as SNe. Beside these two objects, we have confirmed several ZTF transients as variable active galactic nuclei based on their spectral appearance, and determined the host galaxy types of several other ZTF transients.

     
    more » « less
  9. Abstract

    The LIGO HET Response (LIGHETR) project is an enterprise to follow up optical transients (OTs) discovered as gravitational-wave merger sources by the LIGO/Virgo collaboration (LVC). Early spectroscopy has the potential to constrain crucial parameters such as the aspect angle. The LIGHETR collaboration also includes the capacity to model the spectroscopic evolution of mergers to facilitate a real-time direct comparison of models with our data. The principal facility is the Hobby–Eberly Telescope. LIGHETR uses the massively replicated VIRUS array of spectrographs to search for associated OTs and obtain early blue spectra, and in a complementary role, the low-resolution LRS2 spectrograph is used to obtain spectra of viable candidates as well as a densely sampled series of spectra of true counterparts. Once an OT is identified, the anticipated cadence of spectra would match or considerably exceed anything achieved for GW170817 = AT2017gfo for which there were no spectra in the first 12 hr and thereafter only roughly once daily. We describe special HET-specific software written to facilitate the program and attempts to determine the flux limits to undetected sources. We also describe our campaign to follow up OT candidates during the third observational campaign of the LIGO and Virgo Scientific Collaborations. We obtained VIRUS spectroscopy of candidate galaxy hosts for five LVC gravitational-wave events and LRS2 spectra of one candidate for the OT associated with S190901ap. We identified that candidate, ZTF19abvionh = AT2019pip, as a possible Wolf–Rayet star in an otherwise unrecognized nearby dwarf galaxy.

     
    more » « less
  10. Abstract

    The Hobby–Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX) is a large-volume spectroscopic survey without preselection of sources, searching ∼540 deg2for Lyαemitting galaxies (LAEs) at 1.9 <z< 3.5. Taking advantage of such a wide-volume survey, we perform a pilot study using early HETDEX data to search for lensed Lyαemitters (LAEs). After performing a proof of concept using a previously known lensed LAE covered by HETDEX, we perform a search for previously unknown lensed LAEs in the HETDEX spectroscopic sample. We present a catalog of 26 potential LAEs lensed by foreground, red, non-star-forming galaxies atz∼ 0.4–0.7. We estimate the magnification for each candidate system, finding 12 candidates to be within the strong lensing regime (magnificationμ> 2). Follow-up observations of these potential lensed LAEs have the potential to confirm their lensed nature and explore these distant galaxies in more detail.

     
    more » « less