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  1. Walter et al . issue a number of critical comments on our report about the discovery of davemaoite to the end that they believe to show that our results do not provide compelling evidence for the presence of davemaoite in the type specimen and that the hosting diamond had formed in the lithosphere. Their claim is based on a misinterpretation of the diffraction data contained in the paper, an insufficient analysis of the compositional data that disregards the three-dimensional distribution of inclusions, and the arbitrary assumption that Earth’s mantle shows no lateral variations in temperature, inconsistent with state-of-the-art assessments of mantle temperature variations and with their own published results.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 6, 2023
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 8, 2023
  3. Abstract

    During chemotaxis, neutrophils use cell surface G Protein Coupled Receptors to detect chemoattractant gradients. The downstream signaling system is wired with multiple feedback loops that amplify weak inputs and promote spatial separation of cell front and rear activities. Positive feedback could promote rapid signal spreading, yet information from the receptors is transmitted with high spatial fidelity, enabling detection of small differences in chemoattractant concentration across the cell. How the signal transduction network achieves signal amplification while preserving spatial information remains unclear. The GTPase Cdc42 is a cell-front polarity coordinator that is predictive of cell turning, suggesting an important role in spatial processing. Here we directly measure information flow from receptors to Cdc42 by pairing zebrafish parapinopsina, an optogenetic G Protein Coupled Receptor with reversible ON/OFF control, with a spectrally compatible red/far red Cdc42 Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer biosensor. Using this toolkit, we show that positive and negative signals downstream of G proteins shape a rapid, dose-dependent Cdc42 response. Furthermore, F-actin and Cdc42 itself provide two distinct negative signals that limit the duration and spatial spread of Cdc42 activation, maintaining output signals local to the originating receptors.

  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2022
  5. Calcium silicate perovskite, CaSiO 3 , is arguably the most geochemically important phase in the lower mantle, because it concentrates elements that are incompatible in the upper mantle, including the heat-generating elements thorium and uranium, which have half-lives longer than the geologic history of Earth. We report CaSiO 3 -perovskite as an approved mineral (IMA2020-012a) with the name davemaoite. The natural specimen of davemaoite proves the existence of compositional heterogeneity within the lower mantle. Our observations indicate that davemaoite also hosts potassium in addition to uranium and thorium in its structure. Hence, the regional and global abundances of davemaoite influence the heat budget of the deep mantle, where the mineral is thermodynamically stable.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 12, 2022
  6. Coumarins are bioactive molecules that often serve as defenses in plant and animal systems, and understanding their fundamental behavior is essential for understanding their bioactivity. Aesculetin (6,7-dihydroxycoumarin) has recently attracted attention due to its ability to act as an antioxidant, but little is known about its photophysical properties. The fluorescence lifetimes of its neutral and anion form in water are 19 ± 2 ps and 2.3 ± 0.1 ns, respectively. Assuming the short lifetime of the neutral is determined by ESPT, we estimate k(PT )~ 5 × 10^10 s^–1. Using steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, we determine its ground and excited-state p𝐾𝑎1 to be 7.3 and –1, respectively, making it one of the strongest photoacids of the natural coumarins. Aesculetin exhibits a strong pH dependence of the relative fluorescence quantum yield becoming much more fluorescent above p𝐾𝑎1. The aesculetin anion has slightly photobasic character. We also report that aesculetin forms a fluorescent catechol-like complex with boric acid, and this complex has a p𝐾𝑐 of 5.6.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 17, 2022
  7. Abstract Glacier retreat poses risks and benefits for species of cultural and economic importance. One example is Pacific salmon ( Oncorhynchus spp.), supporting subsistence harvests, and commercial and recreational fisheries worth billions of dollars annually. Although decreases in summer streamflow and warming freshwater is reducing salmon habitat quality in parts of their range, glacier retreat is creating new streams and lakes that salmon can colonize. However, potential gains in future salmon habitat associated with glacier loss have yet to be quantified across the range of Pacific salmon. Here we project future gains in Pacific salmon freshwater habitat by linking a model of glacier mass change for 315 glaciers, forced by five different Global Climate Models, with a simple model of salmon stream habitat potential throughout the Pacific Mountain ranges of western North America. We project that by the year 2100 glacier retreat will create 6,146 (±1,619) km of new streams accessible for colonization by Pacific salmon, of which 1,930 (±569) km have the potential to be used for spawning and juvenile rearing, representing 0 to 27% gains within the 18 sub-regions we studied. These findings can inform proactive management and conservation of Pacific salmon in this era of rapid climatemore »change.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
  8. Abstract We present the confirmation and characterization of three hot Jupiters, TOI-1181b, TOI-1516b, and TOI-2046b, discovered by the TESS space mission. The reported hot Jupiters have orbital periods between 1.4 and 2.05 days. The masses of the three planets are 1.18 ± 0.14 MJ, 3.16 ± 0.12 MJ, and 2.30 ±0.28 MJ, for TOI-1181b, TOI-1516b, and TOI-2046b, respectively. The stellar host of TOI-1181b is a G0IV star, whereas TOI-1516b and TOI-2046b orbit F main sequence host stars. The ages of the first two systems are in the range of 2-5 Gyrs. However, TOI-2046 is among the few youngest known planetary systems hosting a hot Jupiter, with an age estimate of 100-400 Myrs. The main instruments used for the radial velocity follow-up of these three planets are located at Ondřejov, Tautenburg and McDonald Observatory, and all three are mounted on 2-3 meter aperture telescopes, demonstrating that mid-aperture telescope networks can play a substantial role in the follow-up of gas giants discovered by TESS and in the future by PLATO.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2023