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  1. Physics-based simulations of Arctic sea ice are highly complex, involving transport between different phases, length scales, and time scales. Resultantly, numerical simulations of sea ice dynamics have a high computational cost and model uncertainty. We employ data-driven machine learning (ML) to make predictions of sea ice motion. The ML models are built to predict present-day sea ice velocity given present-day wind velocity and previous-day sea ice concentration and velocity. Models are trained using reanalysis winds and satellite-derived sea ice properties. We compare the predictions of three different models: persistence (PS), linear regression (LR), and a convolutional neural network (CNN). We quantify the spatiotemporal variability of the correlation between observations and the statistical model predictions. Additionally, we analyze model performance in comparison to variability in properties related to ice motion (wind velocity, ice velocity, ice concentration, distance from coast, bathymetric depth) to understand the processes related to decreases in model performance. Results indicate that a CNN makes skillful predictions of daily sea ice velocity with a correlation up to 0.81 between predicted and observed sea ice velocity, while the LR and PS implementations exhibit correlations of 0.78 and 0.69, respectively. The correlation varies spatially and seasonally: lower values occur in shallow coastal regions and during times of minimum sea ice extent. LR parameter analysis indicates that wind velocity plays the largest role in predicting sea ice velocity on 1-day time scales, particularly in the central Arctic. Regions where wind velocity has the largest LR parameter are regions where the CNN has higher predictive skill than the LR. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2024
  2. Abstract Atmospheric rivers (ARs) result in precipitation over land and ocean. Rainfall on the ocean can generate a buoyant layer of freshwater that impacts exchanges between the surface and the mixed layer. These “fresh lenses” are important for weather and climate because they may impact the ocean stratification at all time scales. Here we use in situ ocean data, collocated with AR events, and a one-dimensional configuration of a general circulation model, to investigate the impact of AR precipitation on surface ocean salinity in the California Current System (CCS) on seasonal and event-based time scales. We find that at coastal and onshore locations the CCS freshens through the rainy season due to AR events, and years with higher AR activity are associated with a stronger freshening signal. On shorter time scales, model simulations suggest that events characteristic of CCS ARs can produce salinity changes that are detectable by ocean instruments (≥0.01 psu). Here, the surface salinity change depends linearly on rain rate and inversely on wind speed. Higher wind speeds ( U > 8 m s −1 ) induce mixing, distributing freshwater inputs to depths greater than 20 m. Lower wind speeds ( U ≤ 8 m s −1 ) allow freshwater lenses to remain at the surface. Results suggest that local precipitation is important in setting the freshwater seasonal cycle of the CCS and that the formation of freshwater lenses should be considered for identifying impacts of atmospheric variability on the upper ocean in the CCS on weather event time scales. Significance Statement Atmospheric rivers produce large amounts of rainfall. The purpose of this study is to understand how this rain impacts the surface ocean in the California Current System on seasonal and event time scales. Our results show that a greater precipitation over the rainy season leads to a larger decrease in salinity over time. On shorter time scales, these atmospheric river precipitation events commonly produce a surface salinity response that is detectable by ocean instruments. This salinity response depends on the amount of rainfall and the wind speed. In general, higher wind speeds will cause the freshwater input from rain to mix deeper, while lower wind speeds will have reduced mixing, allowing a layer of freshwater to persist at the surface. 
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  3. Abstract

    The Virgin Islands basin (VIB) includes several Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) of interest as biologically unique spawning aggregation sites. The ecological structure in and around these MPAs is regulated by several factors, including changes in near‐surface water properties. Anomalously low near‐surface salinity is observed in the VIB during April 2009/2011, and March 2010, with a salinity signature consistent with Amazon plume waters. Other low salinity events in the region are found during 2007–2017 using output from an ocean reanalysis. The reanalysis shows that horizontal salinity advection explains near‐surface salinity variability in the VIB to a high degree, including events observed in the in situ measurements. We use a Lagrangian Particle tracking model to track particles over the 2007–2017 period and identify the source and pathways of water imports to the VIB. We describe three pathways. The northernmost one is often associated with advection of salty Atlantic waters. The two southernmost paths are associated with advection of low salinity waters from the Amazon into the VIB. The latter two pathways arrive to the Caribbean Sea as described in previous studies on low salinity advection to the wider Caribbean from the Amazon River; we find that once in the Caribbean Sea, the low salinity water makes its way into the VIB when steered northward by mesoscale features. This results in Amazon River waters regulating salinity variability in the VIB during April–November. During December–March, when mesoscale activity is at its minimum, the Atlantic inflow regulates the salinity variability within the VIB instead.

     
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  4. Abstract

    Equatorial islands have distinct oceanographic signatures, including cool sea surface temperature and high productivity immediately to their west. It has long been hypothesized that topographic upwelling is responsible for such characteristics—upward deflection by the islands of the eastward‐flowing equatorial undercurrent (EUC). Using 22 years of in situ measurements by Argo, we provide the first direct observations of this process occurring with consistency at two prominent archipelagos in the equatorial Pacific. Argo measurements resolve a clear subsurface thermal fingerprint of vertical divergence at the depth of the EUC, confined to within 100 km of both the Gilbert (∼175°E) and Galápagos Islands (∼90°W). This signal at the Galápagos is well‐reproduced by a high‐resolution ocean reanalysis, enabling the estimation of vertical velocities balancing the zonal convergence of the EUC upon the islands. This sharpened view of the physics underpinning such important tropical ecosystems has implications for strategies to model and predict them.

     
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  5. Abstract Since the mid-2000s, the Argo oceanographic observational network has provided near-real-time four-dimensional data for the global ocean for the first time in history. Internet (i.e., the “web”) applications that handle the more than two million Argo profiles of ocean temperature, salinity, and pressure are an active area of development. This paper introduces a new and efficient interactive Argo data visualization and delivery web application named Argovis that is built on a classic three-tier design consisting of a front end, back end, and database. Together these components allow users to navigate 4D data on a world map of Argo floats, with the option to select a custom region, depth range, and time period. Argovis’s back end sends data to users in a simple format, and the front end quickly renders web-quality figures. More advanced applications query Argovis from other programming environments, such as Python, R, and MATLAB. Our Argovis architecture allows expert data users to build their own functionality for specific applications, such as the creation of spatially gridded data for a given time and advanced time–frequency analysis for a space–time selection. Argovis is aimed to both scientists and the public, with tutorials and examples available on the website, describing how to use the Argovis data delivery system—for example, how to plot profiles in a region over time or to monitor profile metadata. 
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  6. Abstract. The Earth climate system is out of energy balance, and heat hasaccumulated continuously over the past decades, warming the ocean, the land,the cryosphere, and the atmosphere. According to the Sixth Assessment Reportby Working Group I of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change,this planetary warming over multiple decades is human-driven and results inunprecedented and committed changes to the Earth system, with adverseimpacts for ecosystems and human systems. The Earth heat inventory providesa measure of the Earth energy imbalance (EEI) and allows for quantifyinghow much heat has accumulated in the Earth system, as well as where the heat isstored. Here we show that the Earth system has continued to accumulateheat, with 381±61 ZJ accumulated from 1971 to 2020. This is equivalent to aheating rate (i.e., the EEI) of 0.48±0.1 W m−2. The majority,about 89 %, of this heat is stored in the ocean, followed by about 6 %on land, 1 % in the atmosphere, and about 4 % available for meltingthe cryosphere. Over the most recent period (2006–2020), the EEI amounts to0.76±0.2 W m−2. The Earth energy imbalance is the mostfundamental global climate indicator that the scientific community and thepublic can use as the measure of how well the world is doing in the task ofbringing anthropogenic climate change under control. Moreover, thisindicator is highly complementary to other established ones like global meansurface temperature as it represents a robust measure of the rate of climatechange and its future commitment. We call for an implementation of theEarth energy imbalance into the Paris Agreement's Global Stocktake based onbest available science. The Earth heat inventory in this study, updated fromvon Schuckmann et al. (2020), is underpinned by worldwide multidisciplinarycollaboration and demonstrates the critical importance of concertedinternational efforts for climate change monitoring and community-basedrecommendations and we also call for urgently needed actions for enablingcontinuity, archiving, rescuing, and calibrating efforts to assure improvedand long-term monitoring capacity of the global climate observing system. The data for the Earth heat inventory are publicly available, and more details are provided in Table 4. 
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