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    While the direct detection of the dark-matter particle remains very challenging, the nature of dark matter could be possibly constrained by comparing the observed abundance and properties of small-scale sub-galactic mass structures with predictions from the phenomenological dark-matter models, such as cold, warm, or hot dark matter. Galaxy-galaxy strong gravitational lensing provides a unique opportunity to search for tiny surface-brightness anomalies in the extended lensed images (i.e. Einstein rings or gravitational arcs), induced by possible small-scale mass structures in the foreground lens galaxy. In this paper, the first in a series, we introduce and test a methodology to measure the power spectrum of such surface-brightness anomalies from high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging. In particular, we focus on the observational aspects of this statistical approach, such as the most suitable observational strategy and sample selection, the choice of modelling techniques, and the noise correction. We test the feasibility of the power-spectrum measurement by applying it to a sample of galaxy-galaxy strong gravitational lens systems from the Sloan Lens ACS Survey, with the most extended, bright, high-signal-to-noise-ratio lensed images, observed in the rest-frame ultraviolet. In the companion paper, we present the methodology to relate the measured power spectrum to the statistical properties of the underlying small-scale mass structures in the lens galaxy and infer the first observational constraints on the sub-galactic matter power spectrum in a massive elliptical (lens) galaxy.

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    Stringent observational constraints on the subgalactic matter power spectrum would allow one to distinguish between the concordance ΛCDM and the various alternative dark-matter models that predict significantly different properties of mass structure in galactic haloes. Galaxy–galaxy strong gravitational lensing provides a unique opportunity to probe the subgalactic mass structure in lens galaxies beyond the Local Group. Here, we demonstrate the first application of a novel methodology to observationally constrain the subgalactic matter power spectrum in the inner regions of massive elliptical lens galaxies on 1–10 kpc scales from the power spectrum of surface-brightness anomalies in highly magnified galaxy-scale Einstein rings and gravitational arcs. The pilot application of our approach to Hubble Space Telescope (HST/WFC3/F390W) observations of the SLACS lens system SDSS J0252+0039 allows us to place the following observational constraints (at the 99 per cent confidence level) on the dimensionless convergence power spectrum $\Delta ^{2}_{\delta \kappa }$ and the standard deviation in the aperture mass σAM: $\Delta ^{2}_{\delta \kappa }\lt 1$ (σAM < 0.8 × 108 M⊙) on 0.5-kpc scale, $\Delta ^{2}_{\delta \kappa }\lt 0.1$ (σAM < 1 × 108 M⊙) on 1-kpc scale and $\Delta ^{2}_{\delta \kappa }\lt 0.01$ (σAM < 3 × 108 M⊙) on 3-kpc scale. These first upper-limit constraints still considerably exceed the estimated effect of CDM subhaloes. However, future analysis of a larger sample of galaxy–galaxy strong lens systems can substantially narrow down these limits and possibly rule out dark-matter models that predict a significantly higher level of density fluctuations on the critical subgalactic scales.

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  3. Abstract We report on the internal distribution of star formation efficiency in IRAS 08339+6517 (hereafter IRAS08), using ∼200 pc resolution CO(2 − 1) observations from NOEMA. The molecular gas depletion time changes by 2 orders-of-magnitude from disk-like values in the outer parts to less than 10 8 yr inside the half-light radius. This translates to a star formation efficiency per freefall time that also changes by 2 orders-of-magnitude, reaching 50%–100%, different than local spiral galaxies and the typical assumption of constant, low star formation efficiencies. Our target is a compact, massive disk galaxy that has a star formation rate 10× above the z = 0 main sequence; Toomre Q ≈ 0.5−0.7 and high gas velocity dispersion ( σ mol ≈ 25 km s −1 ). We find that IRAS08 is similar to other rotating, starburst galaxies from the literature in the resolved Σ SFR ∝ Σ mol N relation. By combining resolved literature studies we find that the distance from the main sequence is a strong indicator of the Kennicutt-Schmidt power-law slope, with slopes of N ≈ 1.6 for starbursts from 100 to 10 4 M ⊙ pc −2 . Our target is consistent with a scenario in which violent disk instabilities drive rapid inflows of gas. It has low values of Toomre- Q , and also at all radii, the inflow timescale of the gas is less than the depletion time, which is consistent with the flat metallicity gradients in IRAS08. We consider these results in light of popular star formation theories; in general observations of IRAS08 find the most tension with theories in which star formation efficiency is a constant. Our results argue for the need of high-spatial-resolution CO observations for a larger number of similar targets. 
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  4. Abstract

    We perform a search for galaxy–galaxy strong lens systems using a convolutional neural network (CNN) applied to imaging data from the first public data release of the DECam Local Volume Exploration Survey, which contains ∼520 million astronomical sources covering ∼4000 deg2of the southern sky to a 5σpoint–source depth ofg= 24.3,r= 23.9,i= 23.3, andz= 22.8 mag. Following the methodology of similar searches using Dark Energy Camera data, we apply color and magnitude cuts to select a catalog of ∼11 million extended astronomical sources. After scoring with our CNN, the highest-scoring 50,000 images were visually inspected and assigned a score on a scale from 0 (not a lens) to 3 (very probable lens). We present a list of 581 strong lens candidates, 562 of which are previously unreported. We categorize our candidates using their human-assigned scores, resulting in 55 Grade A candidates, 149 Grade B candidates, and 377 Grade C candidates. We additionally highlight eight potential quadruply lensed quasars from this sample. Due to the location of our search footprint in the northern Galactic cap (b> 10 deg) and southern celestial hemisphere (decl. < 0 deg), our candidate list has little overlap with other existing ground-based searches. Where our search footprint does overlap with other searches, we find a significant number of high-quality candidates that were previously unidentified, indicating a degree of orthogonality in our methodology. We report properties of our candidates including apparent magnitude and Einstein radius estimated from the image separation.

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    Cosmological analyses with type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) often assume a single empirical relation between colour and luminosity (β) and do not account for varying host-galaxy dust properties. However, from studies of dust in large samples of galaxies, it is known that dust attenuation can vary significantly. Here, we take advantage of state-of-the-art modelling of galaxy properties to characterize dust parameters (dust attenuation AV, and a parameter describing the dust law slope RV) for 1100 Dark Energy Survey (DES) SN host galaxies. Utilizing optical and infrared data of the hosts alone, we find three key aspects of host dust that impact SN cosmology: (1) there exists a large range (∼1–6) of host RV; (2) high-stellar mass hosts have RV on average ∼0.7 lower than that of low-mass hosts; (3) for a subsample of 81 spectroscopically classified SNe there is a significant (>3σ) correlation between the Hubble diagram residuals of red SNe Ia and the host RV that when corrected for reduces scatter by $\sim 13{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ and the significance of the ‘mass step’ to ∼1σ. These represent independent confirmations of recent predictions based on dust that attempted to explain the puzzling ‘mass step’ and intrinsic scatter (σint) in SN Ia analyses.

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  6. ABSTRACT As part of the cosmology analysis using Type Ia Supernovae (SN Ia) in the Dark Energy Survey (DES), we present photometrically identified SN Ia samples using multiband light curves and host galaxy redshifts. For this analysis, we use the photometric classification framework SuperNNovatrained on realistic DES-like simulations. For reliable classification, we process the DES SN programme (DES-SN) data and introduce improvements to the classifier architecture, obtaining classification accuracies of more than 98 per cent on simulations. This is the first SN classification to make use of ensemble methods, resulting in more robust samples. Using photometry, host galaxy redshifts, and a classification probability requirement, we identify 1863 SNe Ia from which we select 1484 cosmology-grade SNe Ia spanning the redshift range of 0.07 < z < 1.14. We find good agreement between the light-curve properties of the photometrically selected sample and simulations. Additionally, we create similar SN Ia samples using two types of Bayesian Neural Network classifiers that provide uncertainties on the classification probabilities. We test the feasibility of using these uncertainties as indicators for out-of-distribution candidates and model confidence. Finally, we discuss the implications of photometric samples and classification methods for future surveys such as Vera C. Rubin Observatory Legacy Survey of Space and Time. 
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    Cosmological analyses of samples of photometrically identified type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) depend on understanding the effects of ‘contamination’ from core-collapse and peculiar SN Ia events. We employ a rigorous analysis using the photometric classifier SuperNNova on state-of-the-art simulations of SN samples to determine cosmological biases due to such ‘non-Ia’ contamination in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) 5-yr SN sample. Depending on the non-Ia SN models used in the SuperNNova training and testing samples, contamination ranges from 0.8 to 3.5 per cent, with a classification efficiency of 97.7–99.5 per cent. Using the Bayesian Estimation Applied to Multiple Species (BEAMS) framework and its extension BBC (‘BEAMS with Bias Correction’), we produce a redshift-binned Hubble diagram marginalized over contamination and corrected for selection effects, and use it to constrain the dark energy equation-of-state, w. Assuming a flat universe with Gaussian ΩM prior of 0.311 ± 0.010, we show that biases on w are <0.008 when using SuperNNova, with systematic uncertainties associated with contamination around 10 per cent of the statistical uncertainty on w for the DES-SN sample. An alternative approach of discarding contaminants using outlier rejection techniques (e.g. Chauvenet’s criterion) in place of SuperNNova leads to biases on w that are larger but still modest (0.015–0.03). Finally, we measure biases due to contamination on w0 and wa (assuming a flat universe), and find these to be <0.009 in w0 and <0.108 in wa, 5 to 10 times smaller than the statistical uncertainties for the DES-SN sample.

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  8. null (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT Rapidly evolving transients (RETs), also termed fast blue optical transients, are a recently discovered group of astrophysical events that display rapid luminosity evolution. RETs typically rise to peak in less than 10 d and fade within 30, a time-scale unlikely to be compatible with the decay of Nickel-56 that drives conventional supernovae (SNe). Their peak luminosity spans a range of −15 < Mg < −22.5, with some events observed at redshifts greater than 1. Their evolution on fast time-scales has hindered high-quality follow-up observations, and thus their origin and explosion/emission mechanism remains unexplained. In this paper, we present the largest sample of RETs to date, comprising 106 objects discovered by the Dark Energy Survey, and perform the most comprehensive analysis of RET host galaxies. Using deep-stacked photometry and emission lines from OzDES spectroscopy, we derive stellar masses and star formation rates (SFRs) for 49 host galaxies, and metallicities ([O/H]) for 37. We find that RETs explode exclusively in star-forming galaxies and are thus likely associated with massive stars. Comparing RET hosts to samples of host galaxies of other explosive transients as well as field galaxies, we find that RETs prefer galaxies with high specific SFRs (〈log (sSFR)〉 ∼ −9.6), indicating a link to young stellar populations, similar to stripped-envelope SNe. RET hosts appear to show a lack of chemical enrichment, their metallicities akin to long-duration gamma-ray bursts and superluminous SN host galaxies (〈12 + log (O/H)〉 ∼ 9.4). There are no clear relationships between mass or SFR of the host galaxies and the peak magnitudes or decline rates of the transients themselves. 
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  9. null (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT We consider the effects of weak gravitational lensing on observations of 196 spectroscopically confirmed Type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia) from years 1 to 3 of the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We simultaneously measure both the angular correlation function and the non-Gaussian skewness caused by weak lensing. This approach has the advantage of being insensitive to the intrinsic dispersion of SNe Ia magnitudes. We model the amplitude of both effects as a function of σ8, and find σ8 =1.2$^{+0.9}_{-0.8}$. We also apply our method to a subsample of 488 SNe from the Joint Light-curve Analysis (JLA; chosen to match the redshift range we use for this work), and find σ8 =0.8$^{+1.1}_{-0.7}$. The comparable uncertainty in σ8 between DES–SN and the larger number of SNe from JLA highlights the benefits of homogeneity of the DES–SN sample, and improvements in the calibration and data analysis. 
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