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    Detailed understanding of the formation and evolution of globular clusters (GCs) has been recently advanced through a combination of numerical simulations and analytical models. We employ a state-of-the-art model to create a comprehensive catalogue of simulated clusters in three Milky Way (MW) and three Andromeda (M31) analogue galaxies. Our catalogue aims to connect the chemical and kinematic properties of GCs to the assembly histories of their host galaxies. We apply the model to a selected sample of simulated galaxies that closely match the virial mass, circular velocity profile, and defining assembly events of the MW and M31. The resulting catalogue has been calibrated to successfully reproduce key characteristics of the observed GC systems, including total cluster mass, mass function, metallicity distribution, radial profile, and velocity dispersion. We find that clusters in M31 span a wider range of age and metallicity, relative to the MW, possibly due to M31’s recent major merger. Such a merger also heated up the in-situ GC population to higher orbital energy and introduced a large number of ex-situ clusters at large radii. Understanding the impacts of galaxy mergers and accretion on the GC populations is crucial for uncovering the galaxy assembly histories.

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    The existence of globular clusters (GCs) in a few satellite galaxies, and their absence in majority of dwarf galaxies, present a challenge for models attempting to understand the origins of GCs. In addition to GC presence appearing stochastic and difficult to describe with average trends, in the smallest satellite galaxies GCs contribute a substantial fraction of total stellar mass. We investigate the stochasticity and number of GCs in dwarf galaxies using an updated version of our model that links the formation of GCs to the growth of the host galaxy mass. We find that more than 50 per cent of dwarf galaxies with stellar mass $M_{\star }\lesssim 2\times 10^7\, \mathrm{M}_\odot$ do not host GCs, whereas dwarfs with $M_{\star }\sim 10^8\, \mathrm{M}_\odot$ almost always contain some GCs, with a median number ∼10 at z  = 0. These predictions are in agreement with the observations of the Local Volume dwarfs. We also confirm the near-linear GC system mass–halo mass relation down to $M_{\mathrm{h}}\simeq 10^8\, \mathrm{M}_\odot$ under the assumption that GC formation and evolution in galaxies of all mass can be described by the same physical model. A detailed case study of two model dwarfs that resemble the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy shows that observational samples can be notably biased by incompleteness below detection limit and at large radii.

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    Stellar-mass black holes (BHs) can be retained in globular clusters (GCs) until the present. Simulations of GC evolution find that the relaxation driven mass-loss rate is elevated if BHs are present, especially near dissolution. We capture this behaviour in a parametrized mass-loss rate, bench marked by results from N-body simulations, and use it to evolve an initial GC mass function (GCMF), similar to that of young massive clusters in the Local Universe, to an age of 12 Gyr. Low-metallicity GCs ([Fe/H] ≲ −1.5) have the highest mass-loss rates, because of their relatively high BH masses, which combined with their more radial orbits and stronger tidal field in the past explains the high turnover mass of the GCMF ($\sim 10^5\, {\rm M}_\odot$ ) at large Galactic radii ($\gtrsim 10\, {\rm kpc}$ ). The turnover mass at smaller Galactic radii is similar because of the upper mass truncation of the initial GCMF and the lower mass-loss rate due to the higher metallicities. The density profile in the Galaxy of mass lost from massive GCs ($\gtrsim 10^{5}\, {\rm M}_\odot$ ) resembles that of nitrogen-rich stars in the halo, confirming that these stars originated from GCs. We conclude that two-body relaxation is the dominant effect in shaping the GCMF from a universal initial GCMF, because including the effect of BHs reduces the need for additional disruption mechanisms.

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  4. ABSTRACT Globular clusters (GCs) are old massive star clusters that serve as ‘fossils’ of galaxy formation. The advent of Gaia observatory has enabled detailed kinematics studies of the Galactic GCs and revolutionized our understanding of the connections between GC properties and galaxy assembly. However, lack of kinematic measurements of extragalactic GCs limits the sample size of GC systems that we can fully study. In this work, we present a model for GC formation and evolution, which includes positional and kinematic information of individual GCs by assigning them to particles in the Illustris TNG50-1 simulation based on age and location. We calibrate the three adjustable model parameters using observed properties of the Galactic and extragalactic GC systems, including the distributions of position, systemic velocity, velocity dispersion, anisotropy parameter, orbital actions, and metallicities. We also analyse the properties of GCs from different origins. In outer galaxy, ex situ clusters are more dominant than the clusters formed in situ. This leads to the GC metallicities decreasing outwards due to the increasing abundance of accreted, metal-poor clusters. We also find the ex-situ GCs to have greater velocity dispersions and orbital actions, in agreement with their accretion origin. 
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    We investigate the evolution of the tidal field experienced by massive star clusters using cosmological simulations of Milky Way-sized galaxies. Clusters in our simulations experience the strongest tidal force in the first few hundred Myr after formation, when the maximum eigenvalue of the tidal tensor reaches several times 104 Gyr−2. After about 1 Gyr the tidal field plateaus at a lower value, with the median λm ∼ 3 × 103 Gyr−2. The fraction of time clusters spend in high tidal strength (λm > 3 × 104 Gyr−2) regions also decreases with their age from ∼20 per cent immediately after formation to less than 1 per cent after 1 Gyr. At early ages both the in situ and ex situ clusters experience similar tidal fields, while at older ages the in situ clusters in general experience stronger tidal field due to their lower orbits in host galaxy. This difference is reflected in the survival of clusters: we looked into cluster disruption calculated in simulation runtime and found that ex situ star clusters of the same initial mass typically end up with higher bound fraction at the last available simulation snapshot than the in situ ones.

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    We present a suite of galaxy formation simulations that directly model star cluster formation and disruption. Starting from a model previously developed by our group, here we introduce several improvements to the prescriptions for cluster formation and feedback, then test these updates using a large suite of cosmological simulations of Milky Way mass galaxies. We perform a differential analysis with the goal of understanding how each of the updates affects star cluster populations. Two key parameters are the momentum boost of supernova feedback fboost and star formation efficiency per free-fall time ϵff. We find that fboost has a strong influence on the galactic star formation rate, with higher values leading to less star formation. The efficiency ϵff does not have a significant impact on the global star formation rate, but dramatically changes cluster properties, with increasing ϵff leading to a higher maximum cluster mass, shorter age spread of stars within clusters, and higher integrated star formation efficiencies. We also explore the redshift evolution of the observable cluster mass function, finding that most massive clusters have formed at high redshift z > 4. Extrapolation of cluster disruption to z = 0 produces good agreement with both the Galactic globular cluster mass function and age–metallicity relation. Our results emphasize the importance of using small-scale properties of galaxies to calibrate subgrid models of star cluster formation and feedback.

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    We study the response of star clusters to individual tidal perturbations using controlled N-body simulations. We consider perturbations by a moving point mass and by a disc, and vary the duration of the perturbation as well as the cluster density profile. For fast perturbations (i.e. ‘shocks’), the cluster gains energy in agreement with theoretical predictions in the impulsive limit. For slow disc perturbations, the energy gain is lower, and this has previously been attributed to adiabatic damping. However, the energy gain due to slow perturbations by a point-mass is similar to, or larger than that due to fast shocks, which is not expected because adiabatic damping should be almost independent of the nature of the tides. We show that the geometric distortion of the cluster during slow perturbations is of comparable importance for the energy gain as adiabatic damping, and that the combined effect can qualitatively explain the results. The half-mass radius of the bound stars after a shock increases up to ∼7 per cent for low-concentration clusters, and decreases ∼3 per cent for the most concentrated ones. The fractional mass loss is a non-linear function of the energy gain, and depends on the nature of the tides and most strongly on the cluster density profile, making semi-analytic model predictions for cluster lifetimes extremely sensitive to the adopted density profile.

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  8. ABSTRACT We measure the projected half-light radii of young star clusters in 31 galaxies from the Legacy Extragalactic UV Survey (LEGUS). We implement a custom pipeline specifically designed to be robust against contamination, which allows us to measure radii for 6097 clusters. This is the largest sample of young star cluster radii currently available. We find that most (but not all) galaxies share a common cluster radius distribution, with the peak at around 3 pc. We find a clear mass–radius relation of the form Reff ∝ M0.24. This relation is present at all cluster ages younger than 1 Gyr, but with a shallower slope for clusters younger than 10 Myr. We present simple toy models to interpret these age trends, finding that high-mass clusters are more likely to be not tidally limited and expand. We also find that most clusters in LEGUS are gravitationally bound, especially at older ages or higher masses. Lastly, we present the cluster density and surface density distributions, finding a large scatter that appears to decrease with cluster age. The youngest clusters have a typical surface density of 100$\, \mathrm{ M}_\odot \, \mathrm{pc}^{-2}$. 
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  9. Abstract

    The faint and ultrafaint dwarf galaxies in the Local Group form the observational bedrock upon which our understanding of small-scale cosmology rests. In order to understand whether this insight generalizes, it is imperative to use resolved-star techniques to discover similarly faint satellites in nearby galaxy groups. We describe our search for ultrafaint galaxies in the M81 group using deep ground-based resolved-star data sets from Subaru’s Hyper Suprime-Cam. We present one new ultrafaint dwarf galaxy in the M81 group and identify five additional extremely low surface brightness candidate ultrafaint dwarfs that reach deep into the ultrafaint regime toMV∼ − 6 (similar to current limits for Andromeda satellites). These candidates’ luminosities and sizes are similar to known Local Group dwarf galaxies Tucana B, Canes Venatici I, Hercules, and Boötes I. Most of these candidates are likely to be real, based on tests of our techniques on blank fields. Intriguingly, all of these candidates are spatially clustered around NGC 3077, which is itself an M81 group satellite in an advanced state of tidal disruption. This is somewhat surprising, as M81 itself and its largest satellite M82 are both substantially more massive than NGC 3077 and, by virtue of their greater masses, would have been expected to host as many or more ultrafaint candidates. These results lend considerable support to the idea that satellites of satellites are an important contribution to the growth of satellite populations around Milky Way–mass galaxies.

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