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  1. ABSTRACT

    In this paper, we present high-resolution spectroscopic transit observations from ESPRESSO of the super-Neptune WASP-166 b. In addition to spectroscopic ESPRESSO data, we analyse photometric data from TESS of six WASP-166 b transits along with simultaneous NGTS observations of the ESPRESSO runs. These observations were used to fit for the planetary parameters as well as assessing the level of stellar activity (e.g. spot crossings, flares) present during the ESPRESSO observations. We utilize the reloaded Rossiter McLaughlin (RRM) technique to spatially resolve the stellar surface, characterizing the centre-to-limb convection-induced variations, and to refine the star–planet obliquity. We find WASP-166 b has a projected obliquity of $\lambda = -15.52^{+2.85}_{-2.76}\, ^{\circ }$ and vsin (i) = 4.97 ± 0.09 km s−1 which is consistent with the literature. We were able to characterize centre-to-limb convective variations as a result of granulation on the surface of the star on the order of a few km s−1 for the first time. We modelled the centre-to-limb convective variations using a linear, quadratic, and cubic model with the cubic being preferred. In addition, by modelling the differential rotation and centre-to-limb convective variations simultaneously, we were able to retrieve a potential antisolar differential rotational shear (α ∼ −0.5) and stellar inclination (i* either 42.03$^{+9.13}_{-9.60}\, ^{\circ }$ ormore »133.64$^{+8.42}_{-7.98}\, ^{\circ }$ if the star is pointing towards or away from us). Finally, we investigate how the shape of the cross-correlation functions change as a function of limb angle and compare our results to magnetohydrodynamic simulations.

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  2. ABSTRACT

    DW Cnc is an intermediate polar which has previously been observed in both high and low states. Observations of the high state of DW Cnc have previously revealed a spin period at ∼38.6 min, however, observations from the 2018 to 2019 low state showed no evidence of the spin period. We present results from our analysis of 12 s cadence photometric data collected by Next Generation Transit Survey of DW Cnc during the high state which began in 2019. Following the previously reported suppression of the spin period signal, we identify the return of this signal during the high state, consistent with previous observations of it. We identify this as the restarting of accretion during the high state. We further identified three short outbursts lasting ∼1 d in DW Cnc with a mean recurrence time of ∼60 d and an amplitude of ∼1 mag. These are the first outbursts identified in DW Cnc since 2008. Due to the short nature of these events, we identify them not as a result of accretion instabilities but instead either from instabilities originating from the interaction of the magnetorotational instability in the accretion disc and the magnetic field generated by the white dwarf or themore »result of magnetic gating.

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  3. ABSTRACT We present the first intensive continuum reverberation mapping study of the high accretion-rate Seyfert galaxy Mrk 110. The source was monitored almost daily for more than 200 d with the Swift X-ray and ultraviolet (UV)/optical telescopes, supported by ground-based observations from Las Cumbres Observatory, the Liverpool Telescope, and the Zowada Observatory, thus extending the wavelength coverage to 9100 Å. Mrk 110 was found to be significantly variable at all wavebands. Analysis of the intraband lags reveals two different behaviours, depending on the time-scale. On time-scales shorter than 10 d the lags, relative to the shortest UV waveband (∼1928 Å), increase with increasing wavelength up to a maximum of ∼2 d lag for the longest waveband (∼9100 Å), consistent with the expectation from disc reverberation. On longer time-scales, however, the g-band lags the Swift BAT hard X-rays by ∼10 d, with the z-band lagging the g-band by a similar amount, which cannot be explained in terms of simple reprocessing from the accretion disc. We interpret this result as an interplay between the emission from the accretion disc and diffuse continuum radiation from the broad-line region.
  4. ABSTRACT The structure of the broad-line region (BLR) is an essential ingredient in the determination of active galactic nucleus (AGN) virial black hole masses, which in turn are important to study the role of black holes in galaxy evolution. Constraints on the BLR geometry and dynamics can be obtained from velocity-resolved studies using reverberation mapping data (i.e. monitoring data). However, monitoring data are observationally expensive and only available for a limited sample of AGNs, mostly confined to the local Universe. Here, we explore a new version of a Bayesian inference, physical model of the BLR that uses an individual spectrum and prior information on the BLR size from the radius–luminosity relation, to model the AGN BLR geometry and dynamics. We apply our model to a sample of 11 AGNs, which have been previously modelled using monitoring data. Our single-epoch BLR model is able to constrain some of the BLR parameters with inferred parameter values that agree within the uncertainties with those determined from the modelling of monitoring data. We find that our model is able to derive stronger constraints on the BLR for AGNs with broad emission lines that qualitatively have more substructure and more asymmetry, presumably as they containmore »more information to constrain the physical model. The performance of this model makes it a practical and cost-effective tool to determine some of the BLR properties of a large sample of low- and high-redshift AGNs, for which monitoring data are not available.« less
  5. ABSTRACT We present multiwavelength spectral and temporal variability analysis of PKS 0027-426 using optical griz observations from Dark Energy Survey between 2013 and 2018 and VEILS Optical Light curves of Extragalactic TransienT Events (VOILETTE) between 2018 and 2019 and near-infrared (NIR) JKs observations from Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy Extragalactic Infrared Legacy Survey (VEILS) between 2017 and 2019. Multiple methods of cross-correlation of each combination of light curve provides measurements of possible lags between optical–optical, optical–NIR, and NIR–NIR emission, for each observation season and for the entire observational period. Inter-band time lag measurements consistently suggest either simultaneous emission or delays between emission regions on time-scales smaller than the cadences of observations. The colour–magnitude relation between each combination of filters was also studied to determine the spectral behaviour of PKS 0027-426. Our results demonstrate complex colour behaviour that changes between bluer when brighter, stable when brighter, and redder when brighter trends over different time-scales and using different combinations of optical filters. Additional analysis of the optical spectra is performed to provide further understanding of this complex spectral behaviour.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 8, 2023
  6. ABSTRACT We present results of time-series analysis of the first year of the Fairall 9 intensive disc-reverberation campaign. We used Swift and the Las Cumbres Observatory global telescope network to continuously monitor Fairall 9 from X-rays to near-infrared at a daily to subdaily cadence. The cross-correlation function between bands provides evidence for a lag spectrum consistent with the τ ∝ λ4/3 scaling expected for an optically thick, geometrically thin blackbody accretion disc. Decomposing the flux into constant and variable components, the variable component’s spectral energy distribution is slightly steeper than the standard accretion disc prediction. We find evidence at the Balmer edge in both the lag and flux spectra for an additional bound-free continuum contribution that may arise from reprocessing in the broad-line region. The inferred driving light curve suggests two distinct components, a rapidly variable (<4 d) component arising from X-ray reprocessing, and a more slowly varying (>100 d) component with an opposite lag to the reverberation signal.