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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2023
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  4. Abstract MXenes are an emergent class of two-dimensional materials with a very wide spectrum of promising applications. The synthesis of multiple MXenes, specifically solid-solution MXenes, allows fine tuning of their properties, expands their range of applications, and leads to enhanced performance. The functionality of solid-solution MXenes is closely related to the valence state of their constituents: transition metals, oxygen, carbon, and nitrogen. However, the impact of changes in the oxidation state of elements in MXenes is not well understood. In this work, three interrelated solid-solution MXene systems (Ti 2− y Nb y CT x , Nb 2− y V y CT x , and Ti 2− y V y CT x ) were investigated with scanning transmission electron microscopy and electron energy-loss spectroscopy to determine the localized valence states of metals at the nanoscale. The analysis demonstrates changes in the electronic configuration of V upon modification of the overall composition and within individual MXene flakes. These shifts of oxidation state can explain the nonlinear optical and electronic features of solid-solution MXenes. Vanadium appears to be particularly sensitive to modification of the valence state, while titanium maintains the same oxidation state in Ti–Nb and Ti–V MXenes, regardless of stoichiometry. The studymore »also explains Nb’s influential role in the previously observed electronic properties in the Nb–V and Nb–Ti systems.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 31, 2023
  5. A decade after the first report, the family of two-dimensional (2D) carbides and nitrides (MXenes) includes structures with three, five, seven, or nine layers of atoms in an ordered or solid solution form. Dozens of MXene compositions have been produced, resulting in MXenes with mixed surface terminations. MXenes have shown useful and tunable electronic, optical, mechanical, and electrochemical properties, leading to applications ranging from optoelectronics, electromagnetic interference shielding, and wireless antennas to energy storage, catalysis, sensing, and medicine. Here we present a forward-looking review of the field of MXenes. We discuss the challenges to be addressed and outline research directions that will deepen the fundamental understanding of the properties of MXenes and enable their hybridization with other 2D materials in various emerging technologies.