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  1. With the widespread use of machine learning systems in our daily lives, it is important to consider fairness as a basic requirement when designing these systems, especially when the systems make life-changing decisions, e.g., \textit{COMPAS} algorithm helps judges decide whether to release an offender. For another thing, due to the cheap but imperfect data collection methods, such as crowdsourcing and web crawling, label noise is ubiquitous, which unfortunately makes fairness-aware algorithms even more prejudiced than fairness-unaware ones, and thereby harmful. To tackle these problems, we provide general frameworks for learning fair classifiers with \textit{instance-dependent label noise}. For statistical fairness notions, we rewrite the classification risk and the fairness metric in terms of noisy data and thereby build robust classifiers. For the causality-based fairness notion, we exploit the internal causal structure of data to model the label noise and \textit{counterfactual fairness} simultaneously. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods on real-world datasets with controllable synthetic label noise. 
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  2. Ranzato, M. ; Beygelzimer, A. ; Dauphin, Y. ; Liang, P.S. ; Vaughan, J. Wortman (Ed.)
  3. Ranzato, M. ; Beygelzimer, A ; Dauphin, Y. ; Liang, P.S. ; Vaughan, J. Wortman (Ed.)
  4. Alfonso, Valencia (Ed.)
    Abstract Motivation There is growing interest in the biomedical research community to incorporate retrospective data, available in healthcare systems, to shed light on associations between different biomarkers. Understanding the association between various types of biomedical data, such as genetic, blood biomarkers, imaging, etc. can provide a holistic understanding of human diseases. To formally test a hypothesized association between two types of data in Electronic Health Records (EHRs), one requires a substantial sample size with both data modalities to achieve a reasonable power. Current association test methods only allow using data from individuals who have both data modalities. Hence, researchers cannot take advantage of much larger EHR samples that includes individuals with at least one of the data types, which limits the power of the association test. Results We present a new method called the Semi-paired Association Test (SAT) that makes use of both paired and unpaired data. In contrast to classical approaches, incorporating unpaired data allows SAT to produce better control of false discovery and to improve the power of the association test. We study the properties of the new test theoretically and empirically, through a series of simulations and by applying our method on real studies in the context of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. We are able to identify an association between the high-dimensional characterization of Computed Tomography chest images and several blood biomarkers as well as the expression of dozens of genes involved in the immune system. Availability and implementation Code is available on https://github.com/batmanlab/Semi-paired-Association-Test. Supplementary information Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. 
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  5. The majority of state-of-the-art deep learning methods are discriminative approaches, which model the conditional distribution of labels given inputs features. The success of such approaches heavily depends on high-quality labeled instances, which are not easy to obtain, especially as the number of candidate classes increases. In this paper, we study the complementary learning problem. Unlike ordinary labels, complementary labels are easy to obtain because an annotator only needs to provide a yes/no answer to a randomly chosen candidate class for each instance. We propose a generative-discriminative complementary learning method that estimates the ordinary labels by modeling both the conditional (discriminative) and instance (generative) distributions. Our method, we call Complementary Conditional GAN (CCGAN), improves the accuracy of predicting ordinary labels and is able to generate high-quality instances in spite of weak supervision. In addition to the extensive empirical studies, we also theoretically show that our model can retrieve the true conditional distribution from the complementarily-labeled data. 
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