skip to main content

Search for: All records

Creators/Authors contains: "Griffith, Daniel"

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2023
  2. Understanding and predicting the relationship between leaf temperature ( T leaf ) and air temperature ( T air ) is essential for projecting responses to a warming climate, as studies suggest that many forests are near thermal thresholds for carbon uptake. Based on leaf measurements, the limited leaf homeothermy hypothesis argues that daytime T leaf is maintained near photosynthetic temperature optima and below damaging temperature thresholds. Specifically, leaves should cool below T air at higher temperatures (i.e., > ∼25–30°C) leading to slopes <1 in T leaf / T air relationships and substantial carbon uptake when leaves are cooler than air. This hypothesis implies that climate warming will be mitigated by a compensatory leaf cooling response. A key uncertainty is understanding whether such thermoregulatory behavior occurs in natural forest canopies. We present an unprecedented set of growing season canopy-level leaf temperature ( T can ) data measured with thermal imaging at multiple well-instrumented forest sites in North and Central America. Our data do not support the limited homeothermy hypothesis: canopy leaves are warmer than air during most of the day and only cool below air in mid to late afternoon, leading to T can / T air slopes >1 and hystereticmore »behavior. We find that the majority of ecosystem photosynthesis occurs when canopy leaves are warmer than air. Using energy balance and physiological modeling, we show that key leaf traits influence leaf-air coupling and ultimately the T can / T air relationship. Canopy structure also plays an important role in T can dynamics. Future climate warming is likely to lead to even greater T can , with attendant impacts on forest carbon cycling and mortality risk.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 20, 2023
  3. Both historically and in terms of practiced academic organization, the anticipation should be that a flourishing synergistic interface exists between statistics and operations research in general, and between spatial statistics/econometrics and spatial optimization in particular. Unfortunately, for the most part, this expectation is false. The purpose of this paper is to address this existential missing link by focusing on the beneficial contributions of spatial statistics to spatial optimization, via spatial autocorrelation (i.e., dis/similar attribute values tend to cluster together on a map), in order to encourage considerably more future collaboration and interaction between contributors to their two parent bodies of knowledge. The key basic statistical concept in this pursuit is the median in its bivariate form, with special reference to the global and to sets of regional spatial medians. One-dimensional examples illustrate situations that the narrative then extends to two-dimensional illustrations, which, in turn, connects these treatments to the spatial statistics centrography theme. Because of computational time constraints (reported results include some for timing experiments), the summarized analysis restricts attention to problems involving one global and two or three regional spatial medians. The fundamental and foundational spatial, statistical, conceptual tool employed here is spatial autocorrelation: geographically informed sampling designs—which acknowledgemore »a non-random mixture of geographic demand weight values that manifests itself as local, homogeneous, spatial clusters of these values—can help spatial optimization techniques determine the spatial optima, at least for location-allocation problems. A valuable discovery by this study is that existing but ignored spatial autocorrelation latent in georeferenced demand point weights undermines spatial optimization algorithms. All in all, this paper should help initiate a dissipation of the existing isolation between statistics and operations research, hopefully inspiring substantially more collaborative work by their professionals in the future.« less
  4. null (Ed.)
    Understanding spatial and temporal variation in plant traits is needed to accurately predict how communities and ecosystems will respond to global change. The National Ecological Observatory Network’s (NEON’s) Airborne Observation Platform (AOP) provides hyperspectral images and associated data products at numerous field sites at 1 m spatial resolution, potentially allowing high-resolution trait mapping. We tested the accuracy of readily available data products of NEON’s AOP, such as Leaf Area Index (LAI), Total Biomass, Ecosystem Structure (Canopy height model [CHM]), and Canopy Nitrogen, by comparing them to spatially extensive field measurements from a mesic tallgrass prairie. Correlations with AOP data products exhibited generally weak or no relationships with corresponding field measurements. The strongest relationships were between AOP LAI and ground-measured LAI (r = 0.32) and AOP Total Biomass and ground-measured biomass (r = 0.23). We also examined how well the full reflectance spectra (380–2,500 nm), as opposed to derived products, could predict vegetation traits using partial least-squares regression (PLSR) models. Among all the eight traits examined, only Nitrogen had a validation 𝑅2 R 2 of more than 0.25. For all vegetation traits, validation 𝑅2 R 2 ranged from 0.08 to 0.29 and the range of the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) was 14–64%. Our resultsmore »suggest that currently available AOP-derived data products should not be used without extensive ground-based validation. Relationships using the full reflectance spectra may be more promising, although careful consideration of field and AOP data mismatches in space and/or time, biases in field-based measurements or AOP algorithms, and model uncertainty are needed. Finally, grassland sites may be especially challenging for airborne spectroscopy because of their high species diversity within a small area, mixed functional types of plant communities, and heterogeneous mosaics of disturbance and resource availability. Remote sensing observations are one of the most promising approaches to understanding ecological patterns across space and time. But the opportunity to engage a diverse community of NEON data users will depend on establishing rigorous links with in-situ field measurements across a diversity of sites.« less
  5. Abstract

    The SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) protein is an abundant RNA-binding protein critical for viral genome packaging, yet the molecular details that underlie this process are poorly understood. Here we combine single-molecule spectroscopy with all-atom simulations to uncover the molecular details that contribute to N protein function. N protein contains three dynamic disordered regions that house putative transiently-helical binding motifs. The two folded domains interact minimally such that full-length N protein is a flexible and multivalent RNA-binding protein. N protein also undergoes liquid-liquid phase separation when mixed with RNA, and polymer theory predicts that the same multivalent interactions that drive phase separation also engender RNA compaction. We offer a simple symmetry-breaking model that provides a plausible route through which single-genome condensation preferentially occurs over phase separation, suggesting that phase separation offers a convenient macroscopic readout of a key nanoscopic interaction.