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  1. ABSTRACT

    Disintegrating multiple systems have been previously discovered from kinematic studies of the Hipparcos catalogue. They are presumably the result of dynamical encounters taking place in the Galactic disc between single/multiple systems. In this paper, we aim to expand the search for such systems, to study their properties, as well as to characterize possible low-mass ejecta (i.e. brown dwarfs and planets). We have assembled a list of 15 candidate systems using astrometry from the Tycho-Gaia astrometric solution (later upgraded with Gaia DR3), and here we present the discovery and follow-up of five of them. We have obtained DECam imaging for all five systems and by combining near-infrared photometry and proper motion, we searched for ultracool ejected components. We find that the system consisting of TYC 7731-1951-1, TYC 7731-2128 AB, and TYC 7731-1995-1ABC?, contains one very promising ultracool dwarf candidate. Using additional data from the literature, we have found that three out of five disintegrating system candidates are likely to be true disintegrating systems.

     
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  2. Abstract

    The gravitational microlensing technique is most sensitive to planets in a Jupiter-like orbit and has detected more than 200 planets. However, only a few wide-orbit (s> 2) microlensing planets have been discovered, wheresis the planet-to-host separation normalized to the angular Einstein ring radius,θE. Here, we present the discovery and analysis of a strong candidate wide-orbit microlensing planet in the event OGLE-2017-BLG-0448. The whole light curve exhibits long-term residuals to the static binary-lens single-source model, so we investigate the residuals by adding the microlensing parallax, microlensing xallarap, an additional lens, or an additional source. For the first time, we observe a complex degeneracy between all four effects. The wide-orbit models withs∼ 2.5 and a planet-to-host mass ratio ofq∼ 10−4are significantly preferred, but we cannot rule out the close models withs∼ 0.35 andq∼ 10−3. A Bayesian analysis based on a Galactic model indicates that, despite the complicated degeneracy, the surviving wide-orbit models all contain a super-Earth-mass to Neptune-mass planet at a projected planet-host separation of ∼6 au and the surviving close-orbit models all consist of a Jovian-mass planet at ∼1 au. The host star is probably an M or K dwarf. We discuss the implications of this dimension-degeneracy disaster on microlensing light-curve analysis and its potential impact on statistical studies.

     
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  3. Abstract

    Following Shin et al. (2023b), which is a part of the “Systematic KMTNet Planetary Anomaly Search” series (i.e., a search for planets in the 2016 KMTNet prime fields), we conduct a systematic search of the 2016 KMTNet subprime fields using a semi-machine-based algorithm to identify hidden anomalous events missed by the conventional by-eye search. We find four new planets and seven planet candidates that were buried in the KMTNet archive. The new planets are OGLE-2016-BLG-1598Lb, OGLE-2016-BLG-1800Lb, MOA-2016-BLG-526Lb, and KMT-2016-BLG-2321Lb, which show typical properties of microlensing planets, i.e., giant planets orbit M-dwarf host stars beyond their snow lines. For the planet candidates, we find planet/binary or 2L1S/1L2S degeneracies, which are an obstacle to firmly claiming planet detections. By combining the results of Shin et al. (2023b) and this work, we find a total of nine hidden planets, which is about half the number of planets discovered by eye in 2016. With this work, we have met the goal of the systematic search series for 2016, which is to build a complete microlensing planet sample. We also show that our systematic searches significantly contribute to completing the planet sample, especially for planet/host mass ratios smaller than 10−3, which were incomplete in previous by-eye searches of the KMTNet archive.

     
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  4. ABSTRACT

    We present new spectroscopic and photometric follow-up observations of the known sample of extreme coronal line-emitting galaxies (ECLEs) identified in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). With these new data, observations of the ECLE sample now span a period of two decades following their initial SDSS detections. We confirm the non-recurrence of the iron coronal line signatures in five of the seven objects, further supporting their identification as the transient light echoes of tidal disruption events (TDEs). Photometric observations of these objects in optical bands show little overall evolution. In contrast, mid-infrared (MIR) observations show ongoing long-term declines consistent with power-law decay. The remaining two objects had been classified as active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with unusually strong coronal lines rather than being TDE related, given the persistence of the coronal lines in earlier follow-up spectra. We confirm this classification, with our spectra continuing to show the presence of strong, unchanged coronal line features and AGN-like MIR colours and behaviour. We have constructed spectral templates of both subtypes of ECLE to aid in distinguishing the likely origin of newly discovered ECLEs. We highlight the need for higher cadence, and more rapid, follow-up observations of such objects to better constrain their properties and evolution. We also discuss the relationships between ECLEs, TDEs, and other identified transients having significant MIR variability.

     
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  5. Abstract

    We report on the discovery and analysis of the planetary microlensing event OGLE-2019-BLG-1180 with a planet-to-star mass ratioq∼ 0.003. The event OGLE-2019-BLG-1180 has unambiguous cusp-passing and caustic-crossing anomalies, which were caused by a wide planetary caustic withs≃ 2, wheresis the star–planet separation in units of the angular Einstein radiusθE. Thanks to well-covered anomalies by the Korea Micorolensing Telescope Network (KMTNet), we measure both the angular Einstein radius and the microlens parallax in spite of a relatively short event timescale oftE= 28 days. However, because of a weak constraint on the parallax, we conduct a Bayesian analysis to estimate the physical lens parameters. We find that the lens system is a super-Jupiter-mass planet ofMp=1.750.51+0.53MJorbiting a late-type star ofMh=0.550.26+0.27Mat a distanceDL=6.11.3+0.9kpc. The projected star–planet separation isa=5.191.23+0.90au, which means that the planet orbits at about four times the snow line of the host star. Considering the relative lens–source proper motion ofμrel= 6 mas yr−1, the lens will be separated from the source by 60 mas in 2029. At that time one can measure the lens flux from adaptive optics imaging of Keck or a next-generation 30 m class telescope. OGLE-2019-BLG-1180Lb represents a growing population of wide-orbit planets detected by KMTNet, so we also present a general investigation into prospects for further expanding the sample of such planets.

     
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  6. Abstract We present the analysis of seven microlensing planetary events with planet/host mass ratios q < 10 −4 : KMT-2017-BLG-1194, KMT-2017-BLG-0428, KMT-2019-BLG-1806, KMT-2017-BLG-1003, KMT-2019-BLG-1367, OGLE-2017-BLG-1806, and KMT-2016-BLG-1105. They were identified by applying the Korea Microlensing Telescope Network (KMTNet) AnomalyFinder algorithm to 2016–2019 KMTNet events. A Bayesian analysis indicates that all the lens systems consist of a cold super-Earth orbiting an M or K dwarf. Together with 17 previously published and three that will be published elsewhere, AnomalyFinder has found a total of 27 planets that have solutions with q < 10 −4 from 2016–2019 KMTNet events, which lays the foundation for the first statistical analysis of the planetary mass-ratio function based on KMTNet data. By reviewing the 27 planets, we find that the missing planetary caustics problem in the KMTNet planetary sample has been solved by AnomalyFinder. We also find a desert of high-magnification planetary signals ( A ≳ 65), and a follow-up project for KMTNet high-magnification events could detect at least two more q < 10 −4 planets per year and form an independent statistical sample. 
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  7. Aims. We conducted a systematic investigation of the microlensing data collected during the previous observation seasons for the purpose of re-analyzing anomalous lensing events with no suggested plausible models. Methods. We found that two anomalous lensing events, OGLE-2018-BLG-0584 and KMT-2018-BLG-2119, cannot be explained with the usual models based on either a binary-lens single-source (2L1S) or a single-lens binary-source (1L2S) interpretation. We tested the feasibility of explaining the light curves of the events with more sophisticated models by adding either an extra lens (3L1S model) or a source (2L2S model) component to the 2L1S lens system configuration. Results. We find that a 2L2S interpretation explains the light curves of both events well and that for each event there are a pair of solutions resulting from the close and wide degeneracy. For the event OGLE-2018-BLG-0584, the source is a binary composed of two K-type stars and the lens is a binary composed of two M dwarfs. For KMT-2018-BLG-2119, the source is a binary composed of two dwarfs of G and K spectral types and the lens is a binary composed of a low-mass M dwarf and a brown dwarf. 
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  8. ABSTRACT

    This work is devoted to the study of the broad-band 0.8–79 keV spectral and timing properties of the poorly studied X-ray pulsar XTE J1859+083 during its 2015 outburst based on the data from the NuSTAR and Swift observatories. We show that the source pulse profile has complex shape that depends on the energy band. Pulse fraction of XTE J1859+083 has constant value around 35 per cent in the broad energy band, this behaviour is atypical for X-ray pulsars. At the same time its energy spectrum is typical of this class of objects and has a power-law shape with an exponential cutoff at high energies. No cyclotron absorption line was discovered in the source spectrum. On the basis of indirect method and the absence of a cyclotron line, an estimation was made for the magnetic field strength as less than 5 × 1011 G or belonging to the interval from 5 × 1012 to $2.0^{+0.9}_{-1.2}\times 10^{13}$ G. Data from the NOT and SALT telescopes as well as optical and IR sky surveys allowed us also to study the nature of its optical companion. We have proposed and studied new possible candidates for the optical companion of XTE J1859+083 and the most likely candidate was identified. The results of the optical and IR photometry and spectroscopy of these possible companions showed that the system is a Be X-ray binary, showing Brγ, He i, and strong H α spectral lines.

     
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  9. ABSTRACT

    We present a photometric and spectroscopic analysis of the ultraluminous and slowly evolving 03fg-like Type Ia SN 2021zny. Our observational campaign starts from ∼5.3 h after explosion (making SN 2021zny one of the earliest observed members of its class), with dense multiwavelength coverage from a variety of ground- and space-based telescopes, and is concluded with a nebular spectrum ∼10 months after peak brightness. SN 2021zny displayed several characteristics of its class, such as the peak brightness (MB = −19.95 mag), the slow decline (Δm15(B) = 0.62 mag), the blue early-time colours, the low ejecta velocities, and the presence of significant unburned material above the photosphere. However, a flux excess for the first ∼1.5 d after explosion is observed in four photometric bands, making SN 2021zny the third 03fg-like event with this distinct behaviour, while its +313 d spectrum shows prominent [O i] lines, a very unusual characteristic of thermonuclear SNe. The early flux excess can be explained as the outcome of the interaction of the ejecta with $\sim 0.04\, \mathrm{M_{\odot }}$ of H/He-poor circumstellar material at a distance of ∼1012 cm, while the low ionization state of the late-time spectrum reveals low abundances of stable iron-peak elements. All our observations are in accordance with a progenitor system of two carbon/oxygen white dwarfs that undergo a merger event, with the disrupted white dwarf ejecting carbon-rich circumstellar material prior to the primary white dwarf detonation.

     
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  10. Abstract

    We present very early photometric and spectroscopic observations of the Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) 2023bee, starting about 8 hr after the explosion, which reveal a strong excess in the optical and nearest UV (UandUVW1) bands during the first several days of explosion. This data set allows us to probe the nature of the binary companion of the exploding white dwarf and the conditions leading to its ignition. We find a good match to the Kasen model in which a main-sequence companion star stings the ejecta with a shock as they buzz past. Models of double detonations, shells of radioactive nickel near the surface, interaction with circumstellar material, and pulsational delayed detonations do not provide good matches to our light curves. We also observe signatures of unburned material, in the form of carbon absorption, in our earliest spectra. Our radio nondetections place a limit on the mass-loss rate from the putative companion that rules out a red giant but allows a main-sequence star. We discuss our results in the context of other similar SNe Ia in the literature.

     
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