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  1. The growing popularity of the serverless platform has seen an increase in the number and variety of applications (apps) being deployed on it. The majority of these apps process user-provided input to produce the desired results. Existing work in the area of input-sensitive profiling has empirically shown that many such apps have input size-dependent execution times which can be determined through modelling techniques. Nevertheless, existing serverless resource management frameworks are agnostic to the input size-sensitive nature of these apps. We demonstrate in this paper that this can potentially lead to container over-provisioning and/or end-to-end Service Level Objective (SLO) violations. To address this, we propose Cypress, an input size-sensitive resource management framework, that minimizes the containers provisioned for apps, while ensuring a high degree of SLO compliance. We perform an extensive evaluation of Cypress on top of a Kubernetes-managed cluster using 5 apps from the AWS Serverless Application Repository and/or Open-FaaS Function Store with real-world traces and varied input size distributions. Our experimental results show that Cypress spawns up to 66% fewer containers, thereby, improving container utilization and saving cluster-wide energy by up to 2.95X and 23%, respectively, versus state-of-the-art frameworks, while remaining highly SLO-compliant (up to 99.99%). 
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  2. Abstract Motivation

    The third-generation DNA sequencing technologies, such as Nanopore Sequencing, can operate at very high speeds and produce longer reads, which in turn results in a challenge for the computational analysis of such massive data. Nanopolish is a software package for signal-level analysis of Oxford Nanopore sequencing data. Call-methylation module of Nanopolish can detect methylation based on Hidden Markov Model (HMM). However, Nanopolish is limited by the long running time of some serial and computationally expensive processes. Among these, Adaptive Banded Event Alignment (ABEA) is the most time-consuming step, and the prior work, f5c, has already parallelized and optimized ABEA on GPU. As a result, the remaining methylation score calculation part, which uses HMM to identify if a given base is methylated or not, has become the new performance bottleneck.


    This article focuses on the call-methylation module that resides in the Nanopolish package. We propose Galaxy-methyl, which parallelizes and optimizes the methylation score calculation step on GPU and then pipelines the four steps of the call-methylation module. Galaxy-methyl increases the execution concurrency across CPUs and GPUs as well as hardware resource utilization for both. The experimental results collected indicate that Galaxy-methyl can achieve 3×–5× speedup compared with Nanopolish, and reduce the total execution time by 35% compared with f5c, on average.

    Availability and implementation

    The source code of Galaxy-methyl is available at

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  5. Traditionally, HPC workloads have been deployed in bare-metal clusters; but the advances in virtualization have led the pathway for these workloads to be deployed in virtualized clusters. However, HPC cluster administrators/providers still face challenges in terms of resource elasticity and virtual machine (VM) provisioning at large-scale, due to the lack of coordination between a traditional HPC scheduler and the VM hypervisor (resource management layer). This lack of interaction leads to low cluster utilization and job completion throughput. Furthermore, the VM provisioning delays directly impact the overall performance of jobs in the cluster. Hence, there is a need for effectively provisioning virtualized HPC clusters, which can best-utilize the physical hardware with minimal provisioning overheads.Towards this, we propose Multiverse, a VM provisioning framework, which can dynamically spawn VMs for incoming jobs in a virtualized HPC cluster, by integrating the HPC scheduler along with VM resource manager. We have implemented this framework on the Slurm scheduler along with the vSphere VM resource manager. In order to reduce the VM provisioning overheads, we use instant cloning which shares both the disk and memory with the parent VM, when compared to full VM cloning which has to boot-up a new VM from scratch. Measurements with real-world HPC workloads demonstrate that, instant cloning is 2.5× faster than full cloning in terms of VM provisioning time. Further, it improves resource utilization by up to 40%, and cluster throughput by up to 1.5×, when compared to full clone for bursty job arrival scenarios. 
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  6. Compute heterogeneity is increasingly gaining prominence in modern datacenters due to the addition of accelerators like GPUs and FPGAs. We observe that datacenter schedulers are agnostic of these emerging accelerators, especially their resource utilization footprints, and thus, not well equipped to dynamically provision them based on the application needs. We observe that the state-of-the-art datacenter schedulers fail to provide fine-grained resource guarantees for latency-sensitive tasks that are GPU-bound. Specifically for GPUs, this results in resource fragmentation and interference leading to poor utilization of allocated GPU resources. Furthermore, GPUs exhibit highly linear energy efficiency with respect to utilization and hence proactive management of these resources is essential to keep the operational costs low while ensuring the end-to-end Quality of Service (QoS) in case of user-facing queries.Towards addressing the GPU orchestration problem, we build Knots, a GPU-aware resource orchestration layer and integrate it with the Kubernetes container orchestrator to build Kube- Knots. Kube-Knots can dynamically harvest spare compute cycles through dynamic container orchestration enabling co-location of latency-critical and batch workloads together while improving the overall resource utilization. We design and evaluate two GPU-based scheduling techniques to schedule datacenter-scale workloads through Kube-Knots on a ten node GPU cluster. Our proposed Correlation Based Prediction (CBP) and Peak Prediction (PP) schemes together improves both average and 99 th percentile cluster-wide GPU utilization by up to 80% in case of HPC workloads. In addition, CBP+PP improves the average job completion times (JCT) of deep learning workloads by up to 36% when compared to state-of-the-art schedulers. This leads to 33% cluster-wide energy savings on an average for three different workloads compared to state-of-the-art GPU-agnostic schedulers. Further, the proposed PP scheduler guarantees the end-to-end QoS for latency-critical queries by reducing QoS violations by up to 53% when compared to state-of-the-art GPU schedulers. 
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