skip to main content

Attention:

The NSF Public Access Repository (NSF-PAR) system and access will be unavailable from 11:00 PM ET on Thursday, May 23 until 2:00 AM ET on Friday, May 24 due to maintenance. We apologize for the inconvenience.


Title: Multiverse: Dynamic VM Provisioning for Virtualized High Performance Computing Clusters
Traditionally, HPC workloads have been deployed in bare-metal clusters; but the advances in virtualization have led the pathway for these workloads to be deployed in virtualized clusters. However, HPC cluster administrators/providers still face challenges in terms of resource elasticity and virtual machine (VM) provisioning at large-scale, due to the lack of coordination between a traditional HPC scheduler and the VM hypervisor (resource management layer). This lack of interaction leads to low cluster utilization and job completion throughput. Furthermore, the VM provisioning delays directly impact the overall performance of jobs in the cluster. Hence, there is a need for effectively provisioning virtualized HPC clusters, which can best-utilize the physical hardware with minimal provisioning overheads.Towards this, we propose Multiverse, a VM provisioning framework, which can dynamically spawn VMs for incoming jobs in a virtualized HPC cluster, by integrating the HPC scheduler along with VM resource manager. We have implemented this framework on the Slurm scheduler along with the vSphere VM resource manager. In order to reduce the VM provisioning overheads, we use instant cloning which shares both the disk and memory with the parent VM, when compared to full VM cloning which has to boot-up a new VM from scratch. Measurements with real-world HPC workloads demonstrate that, instant cloning is 2.5× faster than full cloning in terms of VM provisioning time. Further, it improves resource utilization by up to 40%, and cluster throughput by up to 1.5×, when compared to full clone for bursty job arrival scenarios.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
1931531
NSF-PAR ID:
10195309
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
2020 20th IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Cluster, Cloud and Internet Computing (CCGRID),
Page Range / eLocation ID:
131 to 141
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. null (Ed.)
    High-throughput computing (HTC) workloads seek to complete as many jobs as possible over a long period of time. Such workloads require efficient execution of many parallel jobs and can occupy a large number of resources for a longtime. As a result, full utilization is the normal state of an HTC facility. The widespread use of container orchestrators eases the deployment of HTC frameworks across different platforms,which also provides an opportunity to scale up HTC workloads with almost infinite resources on the public cloud. However, the autoscaling mechanisms of container orchestrators are primarily designed to support latency-sensitive microservices, and result in unexpected behavior when presented with HTC workloads. In this paper, we design a feedback autoscaler, High Throughput Autoscaler (HTA), that leverages the unique characteristics ofthe HTC workload to autoscales the resource pools used by HTC workloads on container orchestrators. HTA takes into account a reference input, the real-time status of the jobs’ queue, as well as two feedback inputs, resource consumption of jobs, and the resource initialization time of the container orchestrator. We implement HTA using the Makeflow workload manager, WorkQueue job scheduler, and the Kubernetes cluster manager. We evaluate its performance on both CPU-bound and IO-bound workloads. The evaluation results show that, by using HTA, we improve resource utilization by 5.6×with a slight increase in execution time (about 15%) for a CPU-bound workload, and shorten the workload execution time by up to 3.65×for an IO-bound workload. 
    more » « less
  2. Obeid, Iyad ; Selesnick, Ivan ; Picone, Joseph (Ed.)
    The goal of this work was to design a low-cost computing facility that can support the development of an open source digital pathology corpus containing 1M images [1]. A single image from a clinical-grade digital pathology scanner can range in size from hundreds of megabytes to five gigabytes. A 1M image database requires over a petabyte (PB) of disk space. To do meaningful work in this problem space requires a significant allocation of computing resources. The improvements and expansions to our HPC (highperformance computing) cluster, known as Neuronix [2], required to support working with digital pathology fall into two broad categories: computation and storage. To handle the increased computational burden and increase job throughput, we are using Slurm [3] as our scheduler and resource manager. For storage, we have designed and implemented a multi-layer filesystem architecture to distribute a filesystem across multiple machines. These enhancements, which are entirely based on open source software, have extended the capabilities of our cluster and increased its cost-effectiveness. Slurm has numerous features that allow it to generalize to a number of different scenarios. Among the most notable is its support for GPU (graphics processing unit) scheduling. GPUs can offer a tremendous performance increase in machine learning applications [4] and Slurm’s built-in mechanisms for handling them was a key factor in making this choice. Slurm has a general resource (GRES) mechanism that can be used to configure and enable support for resources beyond the ones provided by the traditional HPC scheduler (e.g. memory, wall-clock time), and GPUs are among the GRES types that can be supported by Slurm [5]. In addition to being able to track resources, Slurm does strict enforcement of resource allocation. This becomes very important as the computational demands of the jobs increase, so that they have all the resources they need, and that they don’t take resources from other jobs. It is a common practice among GPU-enabled frameworks to query the CUDA runtime library/drivers and iterate over the list of GPUs, attempting to establish a context on all of them. Slurm is able to affect the hardware discovery process of these jobs, which enables a number of these jobs to run alongside each other, even if the GPUs are in exclusive-process mode. To store large quantities of digital pathology slides, we developed a robust, extensible distributed storage solution. We utilized a number of open source tools to create a single filesystem, which can be mounted by any machine on the network. At the lowest layer of abstraction are the hard drives, which were split into 4 60-disk chassis, using 8TB drives. To support these disks, we have two server units, each equipped with Intel Xeon CPUs and 128GB of RAM. At the filesystem level, we have implemented a multi-layer solution that: (1) connects the disks together into a single filesystem/mountpoint using the ZFS (Zettabyte File System) [6], and (2) connects filesystems on multiple machines together to form a single mountpoint using Gluster [7]. ZFS, initially developed by Sun Microsystems, provides disk-level awareness and a filesystem which takes advantage of that awareness to provide fault tolerance. At the filesystem level, ZFS protects against data corruption and the infamous RAID write-hole bug by implementing a journaling scheme (the ZFS intent log, or ZIL) and copy-on-write functionality. Each machine (1 controller + 2 disk chassis) has its own separate ZFS filesystem. Gluster, essentially a meta-filesystem, takes each of these, and provides the means to connect them together over the network and using distributed (similar to RAID 0 but without striping individual files), and mirrored (similar to RAID 1) configurations [8]. By implementing these improvements, it has been possible to expand the storage and computational power of the Neuronix cluster arbitrarily to support the most computationally-intensive endeavors by scaling horizontally. We have greatly improved the scalability of the cluster while maintaining its excellent price/performance ratio [1]. 
    more » « less
  3. The Sia1 scheduler efficiently assigns heterogeneous deep learning (DL) cluster resources to elastic resource-adaptive jobs. Although some recent schedulers address one aspect or another (e.g., heterogeneity or resource-adaptivity), none addresses all and most scale poorly to large clusters and/or heavy workloads even without the full complexity of the combined scheduling problem. Sia introduces a new scheduling formulation that can scale to the search-space sizes and intentionally match jobs and their configurations to GPU types and counts, while adapting to changes in cluster load and job mix over time. Sia also introduces a low- profiling-overhead approach to bootstrapping (for each new job) throughput models used to evaluate possible resource assignments, and it is the first cluster scheduler to support elastic scaling of hybrid parallel jobs. Extensive evaluations show that Sia outperforms state-of- the-art schedulers. For example, even on relatively small 44- to 64-GPU clusters with a mix of three GPU types, Sia reduces average job completion time ( JCT) by 30–93%, 99th percentile JCT and makespan by 28–95%, and GPU hours used by 12– 55% for workloads derived from 3 real-world environments. Additional experiments demonstrate that Sia scales to at least 2000-GPU clusters, provides improved fairness, and is not over-sensitive to scheduler parameter settings. 
    more » « less
  4. Compute heterogeneity is increasingly gaining prominence in modern datacenters due to the addition of accelerators like GPUs and FPGAs. We observe that datacenter schedulers are agnostic of these emerging accelerators, especially their resource utilization footprints, and thus, not well equipped to dynamically provision them based on the application needs. We observe that the state-of-the-art datacenter schedulers fail to provide fine-grained resource guarantees for latency-sensitive tasks that are GPU-bound. Specifically for GPUs, this results in resource fragmentation and interference leading to poor utilization of allocated GPU resources. Furthermore, GPUs exhibit highly linear energy efficiency with respect to utilization and hence proactive management of these resources is essential to keep the operational costs low while ensuring the end-to-end Quality of Service (QoS) in case of user-facing queries.Towards addressing the GPU orchestration problem, we build Knots, a GPU-aware resource orchestration layer and integrate it with the Kubernetes container orchestrator to build Kube- Knots. Kube-Knots can dynamically harvest spare compute cycles through dynamic container orchestration enabling co-location of latency-critical and batch workloads together while improving the overall resource utilization. We design and evaluate two GPU-based scheduling techniques to schedule datacenter-scale workloads through Kube-Knots on a ten node GPU cluster. Our proposed Correlation Based Prediction (CBP) and Peak Prediction (PP) schemes together improves both average and 99 th percentile cluster-wide GPU utilization by up to 80% in case of HPC workloads. In addition, CBP+PP improves the average job completion times (JCT) of deep learning workloads by up to 36% when compared to state-of-the-art schedulers. This leads to 33% cluster-wide energy savings on an average for three different workloads compared to state-of-the-art GPU-agnostic schedulers. Further, the proposed PP scheduler guarantees the end-to-end QoS for latency-critical queries by reducing QoS violations by up to 53% when compared to state-of-the-art GPU schedulers. 
    more » « less
  5. The next generation of supercomputing resources is expected to greatly expand the scope of HPC environments, both in terms of more diverse workloads and user bases, as well as the integration of edge computing infrastructures. This will likely require new mechanisms and approaches at the Operating System level to support these broader classes of workloads along with their different security requirements. We claim that a key mechanism needed for these workloads is the ability to securely compartmentalize the system software executing on a given node. In this paper, we present initial efforts in exploring the integration of secure and trusted computing capabilities into an HPC system software stack. As part of this work we have ported the Kitten Lightweight Kernel (LWK) to the ARM64 architecture and integrated it with the Hafnium hypervisor, a reference implementation of a secure partition manager (SPM) that provides security isolation for virtual machines. By integrating Kitten with Hafnium, we are able to replace the commodity oriented Linux based resource management infrastructure and reduce the overheads introduced by using a full weight kernel (FWK) as the node-level resource scheduler. While our results are very preliminary, we are able to demonstrate measurable performance improvements on small scale ARM based SOC platforms. 
    more » « less