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  1. Abstract

    We report the discovery and follow-up observations of VT 1137–0337, an unusual radio transient found in our systematic search for extragalactic explosions in the Very Large Array Sky Survey. It is located in the brightest region of a dwarf starburst galaxy at a luminosity distance of 121.6 Mpc. Its 3 GHz luminosity is comparable to luminous radio supernovae associated with dense circumstellar interaction and relativistic outflows. However, its broadband radio spectrum—proportional toν−0.35over a range of ≳10× in frequency and fading at a rate of 5% yr–1—cannot be directly explained by the shock of a stellar explosion. Jets launched by various classes of accreting black holes also struggle to account for VT 1137–0337's combination of observational properties. Instead, we propose that VT 1137–0337 is a decades-old pulsar wind nebula that has recently emerged from within the free–free opacity of its surrounding supernova ejecta. If the nebula is powered by spin-down, the central neutron star should have a surface dipole field of ∼1013–1014G and a present-day spin period of ∼10–100 ms. Alternatively, the nebula may be powered by the release of magnetic energy from a magnetar. Magnetar nebulae have been proposed to explain the persistent radio sources associated with the repeatingmore »fast radio bursts FRB 121102 and FRB 190520B. These FRB persistent sources have not previously been observed as transients but do bear a striking resemblance to VT 1137–0337 in their radio luminosity, spectral index, and host galaxy properties.

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    Galaxy clusters accrete mass through large-scale, strong, structure-formation shocks. Such a virial shock is thought to deposit fractions ξe and ξB of the thermal energy in cosmic-ray electrons (CREs) and magnetic fields, respectively, thus generating a leptonic virial ring. However, the expected synchrotron signal was not convincingly established until now. We stack low-frequency radio data from the OVRO-LWA around the 44 most massive, high latitude, extended MCXC clusters, enhancing the ring sensitivity by rescaling clusters to their characteristic, R500 radii. Both high (73 MHz) and co-added low (36–68 MHz) frequency channels separately indicate a significant (4–5σ) excess peaked at (2.4–2.6)R500, coincident with a previously stacked Fermi γ-ray signal interpreted as inverse-Compton emission from virial-shock CREs. The stacked radio signal is well fit (TS-test: 4–6σ at high frequency, 4–8σ at low frequencies, and 8–10σ joint) by virial-shock synchrotron emission from the more massive clusters, with $\dot{m}\xi _e\xi _B\simeq (1\!-\!4)\times 10^{-4}$, where $\dot{m}\equiv \dot{M}/(MH)$ is the dimensionless accretion rate for a cluster of mass M and a Hubble constant H. The inferred CRE spectral index is flat, p ≃ 2.0 ± 0.2, consistent with acceleration in a strong shock. Assuming equipartition or using $\dot{m}\xi _e\sim 0.6~{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ inferred from the Fermi signal yieldsmore »$\xi _B\simeq (2\!-\!9)~{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$, corresponding to B ≃ (0.1–0.3) $\mu$G magnetic fields downstream of typical virial shocks. Preliminary evidence suggests non-spherical shocks, with factor 2–3 elongations.

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  3. Abstract

    We report the detection and interferometric localization of the repeating fast radio burst (FRB) source FRB 20220912A during commissioning observations with the Deep Synoptic Array (DSA-110). Two bursts were detected from FRB 20220912A, one each on 2022 October 18 and 2022 October 25. The best-fit position is (R.A. J2000, decl. J2000) = (23:09:04.9, +48:42:25.4), with a 90% confidence error ellipse with radii ±2″ and ±1″ in R.A. and decl., respectively. The two bursts are polarized, and we find a Faraday rotation measure that is consistent with the low value of +0.6 rad m−2reported by CHIME/FRB. The DSA-110 localization overlaps with the galaxy PSO J347.2702+48.7066 at a redshiftz= 0.0771, which we identify as the likely host. PSO J347.2702+48.7066 has a stellar mass of approximately 1010M, modest internal dust extinction, and a star formation rate likely in excess of 0.1Myr−1. The host-galaxy contribution to the dispersion measure is likely ≲50 pc cm−3. The FRB 20220912A source is therefore likely viewed along a tenuous plasma column through the host galaxy.

  4. The Owens Valley Radio Observatory Long Wavelength Array is a low radio frequency all-sky imaging radio interferometer. The full 352-element array will generate more than 2 TB of visibility data per hour of observation. One of the array’s primary science cases, the search for variable radio emission from exoplanets and for transients, require fast and high dynamic range interferometric imaging. Here we detail the design and implementation of a two-pipeline infrastructure that minimizes development cost: an offline pipeline that facilitates experimentation with existing pack-ages, and a real-time pipeline that minimizes overhead.
  5. Abstract

    Discovered in 2011 with LOFAR, the 15 Jy low-frequency radio transient ILT J225347+862146 heralds a potentially prolific population of radio transients at <100 MHz. However, subsequent transient searches in similar parameter space yielded no detections. We test the hypothesis that these surveys at comparable sensitivity have missed the population due to mismatched survey parameters. In particular, the LOFAR survey used only 195 kHz of bandwidth at 60 MHz, while other surveys were at higher frequencies or had wider bandwidth. Using 137 hr of all-sky images from the Owens Valley Radio Observatory Long Wavelength Array, we conduct a narrowband transient search at ∼10 Jy sensitivity with timescales from 10 minutes to 1 day and a bandwidth of 722 kHz at 60 MHz. To model the remaining survey selection effects, we introduce a flexible Bayesian approach for inferring transient rates. We do not detect any transient and find compelling evidence that our nondetection is inconsistent with the detection of ILT J225347+862146. Under the assumption that the transient is astrophysical, we propose two hypotheses that may explain our nondetection. First, the transient population associated with ILT J225347+862146 may have a low all-sky density and display strong temporal clustering. Second, ILT J225347+862146 maymore »be an extreme instance of the fluence distribution, of which we revise the surface density estimate at 15 Jy to 1.1 × 10−7deg−2with a 95% credible interval of (3.5 × 10−12, 3.4 × 10−7) deg−2. Finally, we find a previously identified object coincident with ILT J225347+862146 to be an M dwarf at 420 pc.

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  6. Abstract

    We present the discovery of the fading radio transient FIRST J153350.8+272729. The source had a maximum observed 5 GHz radio luminosity of 8 × 1039erg s−1in 1986, but by 2019 had faded by a factor of nearly 400. It is located at the center of a galaxy (SDSS J153350.89+272729) at 147 Mpc, which shows weak Type II Seyfert activity. We show that a tidal disruption event (TDE) is the preferred scenario for FIRST J153350.8+272729, although it could plausibly be interpreted as the afterglow of a long-durationγ-ray burst. This is only the second TDE candidate to be first discovered at radio wavelengths. Its luminosity fills a gap between the radio afterglows of subrelativistic TDEs in the local universe, and relativistic TDEs at high redshifts. The unusual properties of FIRST J153350.8+272729 (ongoing nuclear activity in the host galaxy, high radio luminosity) motivate more extensive TDE searches in untargeted radio surveys.

  7. ABSTRACT The jet opening angle and inclination of GW170817 – the first detected binary neutron star merger – were vital to understand its energetics, relation to short gamma-ray bursts, and refinement of the standard siren-based determination of the Hubble constant, H0. These basic quantities were determined through a combination of the radio light curve and Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) measurements of proper motion. In this paper, we discuss and quantify the prospects for the use of radio VLBI observations and observations of scintillation-induced variability to measure the source size and proper motion of merger afterglows, and thereby infer properties of the merger including inclination angle, opening angle, and energetics. We show that these techniques are complementary as they probe different parts of the circum-merger density/inclination angle parameter space and different periods of the temporal evolution of the afterglow. We also find that while VLBI observations will be limited to the very closest events it will be possible to detect scintillation for a large fraction of events beyond the range of current gravitational wave detectors. Scintillation will also be detectable with next-generation telescopes such as the Square Kilometre Array, 2000 antenna Deep Synoptic Array, and the next-generation Very Large Array,more »for a large fraction of events detected with third-generation gravitational wave detectors. Finally, we discuss prospects for the measurement of the H0 with VLBI observations of neutron star mergers and compare this technique to other standard siren methods.« less