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  1. Abstract The metallicity and gas density dependence of interstellar depletions, the dust-to-gas (D/G), and dust-to-metal (D/M) ratios have important implications for how accurately we can trace the chemical enrichment of the universe, either by using FIR dust emission as a tracer of the ISM or by using spectroscopy of damped Ly α systems to measure chemical abundances over a wide range of redshifts. We collect and compare large samples of depletion measurements in the Milky Way (MW), Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) ( Z = 0.5 Z ⊙ ), and Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) ( Z = 0.2 Z ⊙ ).more »The relations between the depletions of different elements do not strongly vary between the three galaxies, implying that abundance ratios should trace depletions accurately down to 20% solar metallicity. From the depletions, we derive D/G and D/M. The D/G increases with density, consistent with the more efficient accretion of gas-phase metals onto dust grains in the denser ISM. For log N (H) > 21 cm −2 , the depletion of metallicity tracers (S, Zn) exceeds −0.5 dex, even at 20% solar metallicity. The gas fraction of metals increases from the MW to the LMC (factor 3) and SMC (factor 6), compensating for the reduction in total heavy element abundances and resulting in those three galaxies having the same neutral gas-phase metallicities. The D/G derived from depletions are respective factors of 2 (LMC) and 5 (SMC) higher than the D/G derived from FIR, 21 cm, and CO emission, likely due to the combined uncertainties on the dust FIR opacity and on the depletion of carbon and oxygen.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023
  2. ABSTRACT We present results of MUSE-ALMA haloes, an ongoing study of the circumgalactic medium (CGM) of galaxies (z ≤ 1.4). Using multiphase observations we probe the neutral, ionized, and molecular gas in a subsample containing six absorbers and nine associated galaxies in the redshift range z ∼ 0.3–0.75. Here, we give an in-depth analysis of the newly CO-detected galaxy Q2131−G1 (z = 0.42974), while providing stringent mass and depletion time limits for the non-detected galaxies. Q2131−G1 is associated with an absorber with column densities of log(NH i/cm−2) ∼ 19.5 and $\textrm {log}(N_{\textrm {H}_2}/\textrm {cm}^{-2}) \sim 16.5$, and has a star formationmore »rate of SFR = 2.00 ± 0.20 M⊙yr−1, a dark matter fraction of fDM(r1/2) = 0.24–0.54, and a molecular gas mass of $M_\textrm {mol} = 3.52 ^{+3.95}_{-0.31} \times 10^9 \,\, \textrm {M}_{\odot }$ resulting in a depletion time of τdep < 4.15 Gyr. Kinematic modelling of both the CO (3–2) and [O iii] λ5008 emission lines of Q2131−G1 shows that the molecular and ionized gas phases are well aligned directionally and that the maximum rotation velocities closely match. These two gas phases within the disc are strongly coupled. The metallicity, kinematics, and orientation of the atomic and molecular gas traced by a two-component absorption feature are consistent with being part of the extended rotating disc with a well-separated additional component associated with infalling gas. Compared to emission-selected samples, we find that H i-selected galaxies have high molecular gas masses given their low star formation rate. We consequently derive high depletion times for these objects.« less