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Falls are the second leading cause of accidental or unintentional injuries/deaths worldwide. Accurate pose estimation using commodity mobile devices will help early detection and injury assessment of falls, which are essential for the first aid of elderly falls. By following the definition of fall, we propose a P ervasive P ose Est imation scheme for fall detection ( P \( ^2 \) Est ), which measures changes in tilt angle and height of the human body. For the tilt measurement, P \( ^2 \) Est leverages the pointing of the mobile device, e.g., the smartphone, when unlocking to associate the Device coordinate system with the World coordinate system. For the height measurement, P \( ^2 \) Est exploits the fact that the person’s height remains unchanged while walking to calibrate the pressure difference between the device and the floor. We have prototyped and tested P \( ^2 \) Est in various situations and environments. Our extensive experimental results have demonstrated that P \( ^2 \) Est can track the body orientation irrespective of which pocket the phone is placed in. More importantly, it enables the phone’s barometer to detect falls in various environments with decimeter-level accuracy.more » « less
Crowd mobility prediction, in particular, forecasting flows at and transitions across different locations, is essential for crowd analytics and management in spacious environments featured with large gathering. We propose GAEFT, a novel crowd mobility analytics system based on the multi-task graph attention neural network to forecast crowd flows (inflows/outflows) and transitions. Specifically, we leverage the collective and sanitized campus Wi-Fi association data provided by our university information technology service and conduct a relatable case study. Our comprehensive data analysis reveals the important challenges of sparsity and skewness, as well as the complex spatio-temporal variations within the crowd mobility data. Therefore, we design a novel spatio-temporal clustering method to group Wi-Fi access points (APs) with similar transition features, and obtain more regular mobility features for model inputs. We then propose an attention-based graph embedding design to capture the correlations among the crowd flows and transitions, and jointly predict the AP-level flows as well as transitions across buildings and clusters through a multi-task formulation. Extensive experimental studies using more than 28 million association records collected during 2020-2021 academic year validate the excellent accuracy of GAEFT in forecasting dynamic and complex crowd mobility.more » « less