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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2024
  3. The rise of deep neural networks offers new opportunities in optimizing recommender systems. However, optimizing recommender systems using deep neural networks requires delicate architecture fabrication. We propose NASRec, a paradigm that trains a single supernet and efficiently produces abundant models/sub-architectures by weight sharing. To overcome the data multi-modality and architecture heterogeneity challenges in the recommendation domain, NASRec establishes a large supernet (i.e., search space) to search the full architectures. The supernet incorporates versatile choice of operators and dense connectivity to minimize human efforts for finding priors. The scale and heterogeneity in NASRec impose several challenges, such as training inefficiency, operator-imbalance, and degraded rank correlation. We tackle these challenges by proposing single-operator any-connection sampling, operator-balancing interaction modules, and post-training fine-tuning. Our crafted models, NASRecNet, show promising results on three Click-Through Rates (CTR) prediction benchmarks, indicating that NASRec outperforms both manually designed models and existing NAS methods with state-of-the-art performance. Our work is publicly available here. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 30, 2024
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  5. Abstract

    Due to its specificity, fluorescence microscopy has become a quintessential imaging tool in cell biology. However, photobleaching, phototoxicity, and related artifacts continue to limit fluorescence microscopy’s utility. Recently, it has been shown that artificial intelligence (AI) can transform one form of contrast into another. We present phase imaging with computational specificity (PICS), a combination of quantitative phase imaging and AI, which provides information about unlabeled live cells with high specificity. Our imaging system allows for automatic training, while inference is built into the acquisition software and runs in real-time. Applying the computed fluorescence maps back to the quantitative phase imaging (QPI) data, we measured the growth of both nuclei and cytoplasm independently, over many days, without loss of viability. Using a QPI method that suppresses multiple scattering, we measured the dry mass content of individual cell nuclei within spheroids. In its current implementation, PICS offers a versatile quantitative technique for continuous simultaneous monitoring of individual cellular components in biological applications where long-term label-free imaging is desirable.

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  6. The ability to evaluate sperm at the microscopic level, at high-throughput, would be useful for assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs), as it can allow specific selection of sperm cells for in vitro fertilization (IVF). The tradeoff between intrinsic imaging and external contrast agents is particularly acute in reproductive medicine. The use of fluorescence labels has enabled new cell-sorting strategies and given new insights into developmental biology. Nevertheless, using extrinsic contrast agents is often too invasive for routine clinical operation. Raising questions about cell viability, especially for single-cell selection, clinicians prefer intrinsic contrast in the form of phase-contrast, differential-interference contrast, or Hoffman modulation contrast. While such instruments are nondestructive, the resulting image suffers from a lack of specificity. In this work, we provide a template to circumvent the tradeoff between cell viability and specificity by combining high-sensitivity phase imaging with deep learning. In order to introduce specificity to label-free images, we trained a deep-convolutional neural network to perform semantic segmentation on quantitative phase maps. This approach, a form of phase imaging with computational specificity (PICS), allowed us to efficiently analyze thousands of sperm cells and identify correlations between dry-mass content and artificial-reproduction outcomes. Specifically, we found that the dry-mass content ratios between the head, midpiece, and tail of the cells can predict the percentages of success for zygote cleavage and embryo blastocyst formation. 
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