skip to main content

Search for: All records

Creators/Authors contains: "Hedin, Marshal"

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. Abstract

    Traits that independently evolve many times are important for testing hypotheses about correlated evolution and understanding the forces shaping biodiversity. However, population genetics processes can cause hemiplasies (traits determined by genes whose topologies do not match the species tree), leading to a false impression of convergence (homoplasy) and potentially misleading inferences of correlated evolution. Discerning between homoplasies and hemiplasies can be important in cases of rapid radiations and clades with many gene tree incongruences. Here, focusing on two-clawed spiders (Dionycha) and close relatives, we evaluate if the observed distribution of characters related to a web-less lifestyle could be better explained as synapomorphies, homoplasies, or hemiplasies. We find that, although there are several convergences, hemiplasies are also sometimes probable. We discuss how these hemiplasies could affect inferences about correlation and causal relationship of traits. Understanding when and where in the tree of life hemiplasy could have happened is important, preventing false inference of convergent evolution. Furthermore, this understanding can provide alternative hypotheses that can be tested with independent data. Using traits related to the climbing ability of spiders we show that, when hemiplasy is unlikely, adequate model testing can be used to better understand correlated evolution, and propose hypotheses tomore »be tested using controlled behavioral and mechanical experiments.

    « less
  2. Hypochilus is a relictual lineage of Nearctic spiders distributed disjunctly across the United States in three montane regions (California, southern Rocky Mountains, southern Appalachia). Phylogenetic resolution of species relationships in Hypochilus has been challenging, and conserved morphology coupled with extreme genetic divergence has led to uncertain species limits in some complexes. Here, Hypochilus interspecies relationships have been reconstructed and cryptic speciation more critically evaluated using a combination of ultraconserved elements, mitochondrial CO1 by-catch, and morphology. Phylogenomic data strongly support the monophyly of regional clades and support a ((California, Appalachia), southern Rocky Mountains) topology. In Appalachia, five species are resolved as four lineages ( H. thorelli Marx, 1888 and H. coylei Platnick, 1987 are clearly sister taxa), but the interrelationships of these four lineages remain unresolved. The Appalachian species H. pococki Platnick, 1987 is recovered as monophyletic but is highly genetically structured at the nuclear level. While algorithmic analyses of nuclear data indicate many species (e.g., all H. pococki populations as species), male morphology instead reveals striking stasis. Within the California clade, nuclear and mitochondrial lineages of H. petrunkevitchi Gertsch, 1958 correspond directly to drainage basins of the southern Sierra Nevada, with H. bernardino Catley, 1994 nested within H. petrunkevitchi andmore »sister to the southernmost basin populations. Combining nuclear, mitochondrial, geographical, and morphological evidence a new species from the Tule River and Cedar Creek drainages is described, Hypochilus xomote sp. nov. We also emphasize the conservation issues that face several microendemic, habitat-specialized species in this remarkable genus.« less
  3. Abstract

    The diversity of biological and ecological characteristics of organisms, and the underlying genetic patterns and processes of speciation, makes the development of universally applicable genetic species delimitation methods challenging. Many approaches, like those incorporating the multispecies coalescent, sometimes delimit populations and overestimate species numbers. This issue is exacerbated in taxa with inherently high population structure due to low dispersal ability, and in cryptic species resulting from nonecological speciation. These taxa present a conundrum when delimiting species: analyses rely heavily, if not entirely, on genetic data which over split species, while other lines of evidence lump. We showcase this conundrum in the harvesterTheromaster brunneus, a low dispersal taxon with a wide geographic distribution and high potential for cryptic species. Integrating morphology, mitochondrial, and sub-genomic (double-digest RADSeq and ultraconserved elements) data, we find high discordance across analyses and data types in the number of inferred species, with further evidence that multispecies coalescent approaches over split. We demonstrate the power of a supervised machine learning approach in effectively delimiting cryptic species by creating a “custom” training data set derived from a well-studied lineage with similar biological characteristics asTheromaster. This novel approach uses known taxa with particular biological characteristics to inform unknown taxamore »with similar characteristics, using modern computational tools ideally suited for species delimitation. The approach also considers the natural history of organisms to make more biologically informed species delimitation decisions, and in principle is broadly applicable for taxa across the tree of life.

    « less
  4. The Opiliones superfamily Triaenonychoidea currently includes two families, the monogeneric New Zealand–endemic Synthetonychiidae Forster, 1954 and Triaenonychidae Sørensen, 1886, a diverse family distributed mostly throughout the temperate Gondwanan terranes, with ~110 genera and ~500 species and subspecies currently described. Traditionally, Triaenonychidae has been divided into subfamilies diagnosed by very few morphological characters largely derived from the troublesome ‘Roewerian system’ of morphology, and classifications based on this system led to many complications. Recent research within Triaenonychoidea using morphology and traditional multilocus data has shown multiple deeply divergent lineages, non-monophyly of Triaenonychidae, and non-monophyly of subfamilies, necessitating a revision based on phylogenomic data. We used sequence capture of ultraconserved elements across 164 samples to create a 50% taxon occupancy matrix with 704 loci. Using phylogenomic and morphological examinations, we explored family-level relationships within Triaenonychoidea, including describing two new families: (1) Lomanellidae Mendes & Derkarabetian, fam. nov., consisting of Lomanella Pocock, 1903, and a newly described genus Abaddon Derkarabetian & Baker, gen. nov. with one species, A. despoliator Derkarabetian, sp. nov.; and (2) the elevation to family of Buemarinoidae Karaman, 2019, consisting of Buemarinoa Roewer, 1956, Fumontana Shear, 1977, Flavonuncia Lawrence, 1959, and a newly described genus Turonychus Derkarabetian, Prieto & Giribet, gen.more »nov., with one species, T. fadriquei Derkarabetian, Prieto & Giribet, sp. nov. With our dataset we also explored phylogenomic relationships within Triaenonychidae with an extensive taxon set including samples representing ~80% of the genus-level diversity. Based on our results we (1) discuss systematics of this family including the historical use of subfamilies, (2) reassess morphology in the context of our phylogeny, (3) hypothesise placement for all unsampled genera, (4) highlight lineages most in need of taxonomic revision, and (5) provide an updated species-level checklist. Aside from describing new taxa, our study provides the phylogenomic context necessary for future evolutionary and systematic research across this diverse lineage.ZooBank Registration:« less
  5. Abstract Understanding diversity has been a pursuit in evolutionary biology since its inception. A challenge arises when sexual selection has played a role in diversification. Questions of what constitutes a ‘species’, homoplasy vs. synapomorphy, and whether sexually selected traits show phylogenetic signal have hampered work on many systems. Peacock spiders are famous for sexually selected male courtship dances and peacock-like abdominal ornamentation. This lineage of jumping spiders currently includes over 90 species classified into two genera, Maratus and Saratus. Most Maratus species have been placed into groups based on secondary sexual characters, but evolutionary relationships remain unresolved. Here we assess relationships in peacock spiders using phylogenomic data (ultraconserved elements and RAD-sequencing). Analyses reveal that Maratus and the related genus Saitis are paraphyletic. Many, but not all, morphological groups within a ‘core Maratus’ clade are recovered as genetic clades but we find evidence for undocumented speciation. Based on original observations of male courtship, our comparative analyses suggest that courtship behaviour and peacock-like abdominal ornamentation have evolved sequentially, with some traits inherited from ancestors and others evolving repeatedly and independently from ‘simple’ forms. Our results have important implications for the taxonomy of these spiders, and provide a much-needed evolutionary framework for comparativemore »studies of the evolution of sexual signal characters.« less
  6. The systematics of sitticine jumping spiders is reviewed, with a focus on the Palearctic and Nearctic regions, in order to revise their generic classification, clarify the species of one region (Canada), and study their chromosomes. A genome-wide molecular phylogeny of 23 sitticine species, using more than 700 loci from the arachnid Ultra-Conserved Element (UCE) probeset, confirms the Neotropical origins of sitticines, whose basal divergence separates the new subtribe Aillutticina (a group of five Neotropical genera) from the subtribe Sitticina (five genera of Eurasia and the Americas). The phylogeny shows that most Eurasian sitticines form a relatively recent and rapid radiation, which we unite into the genus Attulus Simon, 1868, consisting of the subgenera Sitticus Simon, 1901 (seven described species), Attulus (41 described species), and Sittilong Prószyński, 2017 (one species). Five species of Attulus occur natively in North America, presumably through dispersals back from the Eurasian radiation, but an additional three species were more recently introduced from Eurasia. Attus palustris Peckham & Peckham, 1883 is considered to be a full synonym of Euophrys floricola C. L. Koch, 1837 (not a distinct subspecies). Attus sylvestris Emerton, 1891 is removed from synonymy and recognized as a senior synonym of Sitticus magnus Chamberlin &more »Ivie, 1944. Thus, the five native Attulus in North America are Attulus floricola , A. sylvestris , A. cutleri , A. striatus , and A. finschi . The other sitticines of Canada and the U.S.A. are placed in separate genera, all of which arose from a Neotropical radiation including Jollas Simon, 1901 and Tomis F.O.Pickard-Cambridge, 1901: (1) Attinella Banks, 1905 ( A. dorsata , A. concolor , A. juniperi ), (2) Tomis ( T. welchi ), and (3) Sittisax Prószyński, 2017 ( S. ranieri ). All Neotropical and Caribbean “ Sitticus ” are transferred to either Jollas (12 species total) or Tomis (14 species). Attinella (three species) and Tomis are both removed from synonymy with Sitticus ; the synonymy of Sitticus cabellensis Prószyński, 1971 with Pseudattulus kratochvili Caporiacco, 1947 is restored; Pseudattulus Caporiacco, 1947 is synonymized with Tomis . Six generic names are newly synonymized with Attulus and one with Attinella . Two Neotropical species are described as new, Jollas cupreus sp. nov. and Tomis manabita sp. nov. Forty-six new combinations are established and three are restored. Three species synonymies are restored, one is new, and two are rejected. Across this diversity of species is a striking diversification of chromosome complements, with X-autosome fusions occurring at least four times to produce neo-Y sex chromosome systems (X 1 X 2 Y and X 1 X 2 X 3 Y), some of which ( Sittisax ranieri and S. saxicola ) are sufficiently derived as to no longer preserve the simple traces of ancestral X material. The correlated distribution of neo-Y and a base autosome number of 28 suggests that neo-Y origins occurred preferentially in lineages with the presence of an extra pair of autosomes.« less
  7. Abstract The common ancestor of spiders likely used silk to line burrows or make simple webs, with specialized spinning organs and aerial webs originating with the evolution of the megadiverse “true spiders” (Araneomorphae). The base of the araneomorph tree also concentrates the greatest number of changes in respiratory structures, a character system whose evolution is still poorly understood, and that might be related to the evolution of silk glands. Emphasizing a dense sampling of multiple araneomorph lineages where tracheal systems likely originated, we gathered genomic-scale data and reconstructed a phylogeny of true spiders. This robust phylogenomic framework was used to conduct maximum likelihood and Bayesian character evolution analyses for respiratory systems, silk glands, and aerial webs, based on a combination of original and published data. Our results indicate that in true spiders, posterior book lungs were transformed into morphologically similar tracheal systems six times independently, after the evolution of novel silk gland systems and the origin of aerial webs. From these comparative data we put forth a novel hypothesis that early-diverging web building spiders were faced with new energetic demands for spinning, which prompted the evolution of similar tracheal systems via convergence; we also propose tests of predictions derived frommore »this hypothesis.« less