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  1. Abstract

    The warm Neptune GJ 3470b transits a nearby (d= 29 pc) bright slowly rotating M1.5-dwarf star. Using spectroscopic observations during two transits with the newly commissioned NEID spectrometer on the WIYN 3.5 m Telescope at Kitt Peak Observatory, we model the classical Rossiter–McLaughlin effect, yielding a sky-projected obliquity ofλ=9812+15and avsini=0.850.33+0.27kms1. Leveraging information about the rotation period and size of the host star, our analysis yields a true obliquity ofψ=958+9, revealing that GJ 3470b is on a polar orbit. Using radial velocities from HIRES, HARPS, and the Habitable-zone Planet Finder, we show that the data are compatible with a long-term radial velocity (RV) slope ofγ̇=0.0022±0.0011ms1day1over a baseline of 12.9 yr. If the RV slope is due to acceleration from another companion in the system, we show that such a companion is capable of explaining the polar and mildly eccentric orbit of GJ 3470b using two different secular excitation models. The existence of an outer companion can be further constrained with additional RV observations, Gaia astrometry, and future high-contrast imaging observations. Lastly, we show that tidal heating frommore »GJ 3470b’s mild eccentricity has most likely inflated the radius of GJ 3470b by a factor of ∼1.5–1.7, which could help account for its evaporating atmosphere.

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  3. Abstract

    Silicon and strontium are key elements to explore the nucleosynthesis and chemical evolution of the Galaxy by measurements of very metal-poor stars. There are, however, only a few useful spectral lines of these elements in the optical range that are measurable for such low-metallicity stars. Here we report on abundances of these two elements determined from near-infrared high-resolution spectra obtained with the Subaru Telescope Infrared Doppler instrument. Si abundances are determined for as many as 26 Si lines for six very and extremely metal-poor stars (−4.0 < [Fe/H] < −1.5), which significantly improves the reliability of the abundance measurements. All six stars, including three carbon-enhanced objects, show over-abundances of Si ([Si/Fe] ∼ +0.5). Two stars with [Fe/H] ∼ −1.5 have relatively small over-abundances. The [Mg/Si] ratios agree with the solar value, except for one metal-poor star with carbon excess. Strontium abundances are determined from the triplet lines for four stars, including two for the first time. The consistency of the Sr abundances determined from near-infrared and optical spectra require further examination from additional observations.