skip to main content

Search for: All records

Creators/Authors contains: "Holtzman, Jon"

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. Abstract

    We derive distances and masses of stars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment Data Release 17 using simple neural networks. Training data for distances comes from Gaia EDR3, supplemented by literature distances for star clusters. For masses, the network is trained using asteroseismic masses for evolved stars and isochrone masses for main-sequence stars. The models are trained on effective temperature, surface gravity, metallicity, and carbon and nitrogen abundances. We found that our distance predictions have median fractional errors that range from ≈20% at low loggand ≈10% at higher loggwith a standard deviation of ≈11%. The mass predictions have a standard deviation of ±12%. Using the masses, we derive ages for evolved stars based on the correspondence between mass and age for giant stars given by isochrones. The results are compiled into a Value Added Catalog called DistMass that contains distances and masses for 733,901 independent spectra, plus ages for 396,548 evolved stars.

    more » « less
  2. Abstract

    We present an analysis of nearly 1000 near-infrared, integrated-light spectra from APOGEE in the inner ∼7 kpc of M31. We utilize full-spectrum fitting with A-LIST simple stellar population spectral templates that represent a population of stars with the same age, [M/H], and [α/M]. With this, we determine the mean kinematics, metallicities,αabundances, and ages of the stellar populations of M31's bar, bulge, and inner disk (∼4–7 kpc). We find a nonaxisymmetric velocity field in M31 resulting from the presence of a bar. The bulge of M31 is less metal-rich (mean [M/H] =0.1490.081+0.067dex) than the disk, features minima in metallicity on either side of the bar ([M/H] ∼ −0.2), and is enhanced inαabundance (mean [α/M] =0.2810.038+0.035). The disk of M31 within ∼7 kpc is enhanced in both metallicity ([M/H] =0.0230.052+0.050) andαabundance ([α/M] =0.2740.025+0.020). Both of these structural components are uniformly old at ≃12 Gyr. We find the mean metallicity increases with distance from the center of M31, with the steepest gradient along the disk major axis (0.043 ± 0.021 dex kpc−1). This gradient is the result of changing light contributions from the bulge and disk. The chemodynamics of stellar populations encodes information about a galaxy’s chemical enrichment, star formation history, and merger history, allowing us to discuss new constraints on M31's formation. Our results provide a stepping stone between our understanding of the Milky Way and other external galaxies.

    more » « less
  3. Abstract We present a spectroscopic analysis of a sample of 48 M-dwarf stars (0.2 M ⊙ < M < 0.6 M ⊙ ) from the Hyades open cluster using high-resolution H -band spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey/Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) survey. Our methodology adopts spectrum synthesis with LTE MARCS model atmospheres, along with the APOGEE Data Release 17 line list, to determine effective temperatures, surface gravities, metallicities, and projected rotational velocities. The median metallicity obtained for the Hyades M dwarfs is [M/H] = 0.09 ± 0.03 dex, indicating a small internal uncertainty and good agreement with optical results for Hyades red giants. Overall, the median radii are larger than predicted by stellar models by 1.6% ± 2.3% and 2.4% ± 2.3%, relative to a MIST and DARTMOUTH isochrone, respectively. We emphasize, however, that these isochrones are different, and the fractional radius inflation for the fully and partially convective regimes have distinct behaviors depending on the isochrone. Using a MIST isochrone there is no evidence of radius inflation for the fully convective stars, while for the partially convective M dwarfs the radii are inflated by 2.7% ± 2.1%, which is in agreement with predictions from models that include magnetic fields. For the partially convective stars, rapid rotators present on average higher inflation levels than slow rotators. The comparison with SPOTS isochrone models indicates that the derived M-dwarf radii can be explained by accounting for stellar spots in the photosphere of the stars, with 76% of the studied M dwarfs having up to 20% spot coverage, and the most inflated stars with ∼20%–40% spot coverage. 
    more » « less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  4. Evans, Christopher J. ; Bryant, Julia J. ; Motohara, Kentaro (Ed.)

    We calculate the α-enhancement ratio [α/Fe] for the Mapping Nearby Galaxies at APO (MaNGA) Stellar Library (MaStar) while also fitting for the fundamental atmospheric parameters effective temperature, surface gravity, and metallicity – Teff, log g, [Fe/H]. This approach builds upon a previous catalogue of stellar parameters, whereby only the fundamental atmospheric parameters are fit with solar-scaled models. Here, we use the same Markov Chain Monte Carlo method with the additional free parameter [α/Fe]. Using the full spectral fitting code pPXF, we are able to fit multiple lines sensitive to [α/Fe] for a more robust measurement. Quality flags based on the convergence of the sampler, errors in [α/Fe] and a cut in the χ2 of the model fit are used to clean the final catalogue, returning 17 214 spectra and values in the range of −0.25 < [α/Fe] < 0.48. Comparing our calculated [α/Fe] with literature values reveals a degeneracy in cool stars with log g ≥ ∼4; this comparison is then used to create an alternative and calibrated parameter set. We also plot the final catalogue in an [Fe/H] versus [α/Fe] diagram and recover the expected result of increasing [α/Fe] with decreasing [Fe/H] for Milky Way disc-halo stars. We apply our method to a subsample of spectra of uniform resolution and higher signal to noise that finds that our results are independent of this higher signal to noise. In the context of stellar population models, we are able to cover a parameter space for the creation of intermediate to old age models at solar-scaled [α/Fe], high [Fe/H] and enhanced [α/Fe], low [Fe/H].

    more » « less
  6. Abstract

    We present new maps of the Milky Way disk showing the distribution of metallicity ([Fe/H]),α-element abundances ([Mg/Fe]), and stellar age, using a sample of 66,496 red giant stars from the final data release (DR17) of the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment survey. We measure radial and vertical gradients, quantify the distribution functions for age and metallicity, and explore chemical clock relations across the Milky Way for the low-αdisk, high-αdisk, and total population independently. The low-αdisk exhibits a negative radial metallicity gradient of −0.06 ± 0.001 dex kpc−1, which flattens with distance from the midplane. The high-αdisk shows a flat radial gradient in metallicity and age across nearly all locations of the disk. The age and metallicity distribution functions shift from negatively skewed in the inner Galaxy to positively skewed at large radius. Significant bimodality in the [Mg/Fe]–[Fe/H] plane and in the [Mg/Fe]–age relation persist across the entire disk. The age estimates have typical uncertainties of ∼0.15 in log(age) and may be subject to additional systematic errors, which impose limitations on conclusions drawn from this sample. Nevertheless, these results act as critical constraints on galactic evolution models, constraining which physical processes played a dominant role in the formation of the Milky Way disk. We discuss how radial migration predicts many of the observed trends near the solar neighborhood and in the outer disk, but an additional more dramatic evolution history, such as the multi-infall model or a merger event, is needed to explain the chemical and age bimodality elsewhere in the Galaxy.

    more » « less

    The ‘Spectroscopy and H-band Imaging of Virgo cluster galaxies’ (SHIVir) survey is an optical and near-infrared survey which combines SDSS photometry, deep H-band photometry, and long-slit optical spectroscopy for 190 Virgo cluster galaxies covering all morphological types over the stellar mass range log (M*/M⊙) = 7.8–11.5. We present the spectroscopic sample selection, data reduction, and analysis for this SHIVir sample. We have used and optimized the pPXF routine to extract stellar kinematics from our data. Ultimately, resolved kinematic profiles (rotation curves and velocity dispersion profiles) are available for 133 SHIVir galaxies. A comprehensive data base of photometric and kinematic parameters for the SHIVir sample is presented with grizH magnitudes, effective surface brightnesses, effective and isophotal radii, rotational velocities, velocity dispersions, and stellar and dynamical masses. Parameter distributions highlight some bimodal distributions and possible sample biases. A qualitative study of resolved extended velocity dispersion profiles suggests a link between the so-called ‘sigma-drop’ kinematic profile and the presence of rings in lenticular S0 galaxies. Rising dispersion profiles are linked to early-type spirals or dwarf ellipticals for which a rotational component is significant, whereas peaked profiles are tied to featureless giant ellipticals.

    more » « less

    Stellar radial migration plays an important role in reshaping a galaxy’s structure and the radial distribution of stellar population properties. In this work, we revisit reported observational evidence for radial migration and quantify its strength using the age–[Fe/H] distribution of stars across the Milky Way with APOGEE data. We find a broken age–[Fe/H] relation in the Galactic disc at r > 6 kpc, with a more pronounced break at larger radii. To quantify the strength of radial migration, we assume stars born at each radius have a unique age and metallicity, and then decompose the metallicity distribution function (MDF) of mono-age young populations into different Gaussian components that originated from various birth radii at rbirth < 13 kpc. We find that, at ages of 2 and 3 Gyr, roughly half the stars were formed within 1 kpc of their present radius, and very few stars (<5 per cent) were formed more than 4 kpc away from their present radius. These results suggest limited short-distance radial migration and inefficient long-distance migration in the Milky Way during the last 3 Gyr. In the very outer disc beyond 15 kpc, the observed age–[Fe/H] distribution is consistent with the prediction of pure radial migration from smaller radii, suggesting a migration origin of the very outer disc. We also estimate intrinsic metallicity gradients at ages of 2 and 3 Gyr of −0.061 and −0.063 dex kpc−1, respectively.

    more » « less

    The spatial distribution of mono-abundance populations (MAPs, selected in [Fe/H] and [Mg/Fe]) reflect the chemical and structural evolution in a galaxy and impose strong constraints on galaxy formation models. In this paper, we use APOGEE data to derive the intrinsic density distribution of MAPs in the Milky Way, after carefully considering the survey selection function. We find that a single exponential profile is not a sufficient description of the Milky Way’s disc. Both the individual MAPs and the integrated disc exhibit a broken radial density distribution; densities are relatively constant with radius in the inner Galaxy and rapidly decrease beyond the break radius. We fit the intrinsic density distribution as a function of radius and vertical height with a 2D density model that considers both a broken radial profile and radial variation of scale height (i.e. flaring). There is a large variety of structural parameters between different MAPs, indicative of strong structure evolution of the Milky Way. One surprising result is that high-α MAPs show the strongest flaring. The young, solar-abundance MAPs present the shortest scale height and least flaring, suggesting recent and ongoing star formation confined to the disc plane. Finally we derive the intrinsic density distribution and corresponding structural parameters of the chemically defined thin and thick discs. The chemical thick and thin discs have local surface mass densities of 5.62 ± 0.08 and 15.69 ± 0.32 M⊙pc−2, respectively, suggesting a massive thick disc with a local surface mass density ratio between thick to thin disc of 36 per cent.

    more » « less