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  1. Wheeler, Aaron (Ed.)
    The ability to measure the charge and size of single particles is essential to understanding particle adhesion and interaction with their environment. Characterizing the physical properties of biological particles, like cells, can be a powerful tool in studying the association between the changes in physical properties and disease development. Currently, measuring charge via the electrophoretic mobility (μep) of individual particles remains challenging, and there is only one prior report of simultaneously measuring μep and size. We introduce microfluidic transverse AC electrophoresis (TrACE), a novel technique that combines particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) and AC electrophoresis. In TrACE, electric waves with 0.75 to 1.5 V amplitude are applied transversely to the bulk flow and cause the particles to oscillate. PTV records the particles' oscillating trajectories as pressure drives bulk flow through the microchannel. A simple quasi-equilibrium model agrees well with experimental measurements of frequency, amplitude, and phase, indicating that particle motion is largely described by DC electrophoresis. The measured μep of polystyrene particles (0.53, 0.84, 1, and 2 μm diameter) are consistent with ELS measurements, and precision is enhanced by averaging ∼100 measurements per particle. Particle size is simultaneously measured from Brownian motion quantified from the trajectory for particles <2 μm or image analysis for particles ≥2 μm. Lastly, the ability to analyze intact mammalian cells is demonstrated with B cells. TrACE systems are expected to be highly suitable as fieldable tools to measure the μep and size of a broad range of individual particles. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 8, 2024
  2. We experimentally explored the effect of single-sidewall cooling on Rayleigh–Bénard (RB) convection. Canonical RB was also studied to aid insight. The scenarios shared tank dimensions and bottom and top wall temperatures; the single sidewall cooling had the top wall temperature. Turbulence was explored at two canonical Rayleigh numbers, $Ra=1.6\times 10^{10}$ and $Ra=2\times 10^9$ under Prandtl number $Pr=5.4$ . Particle image velocimetry described vertical planes parallel and perpendicular to the sidewall cooling. The two $Ra$ scenarios reveal pronounced changes in the flow structure and large-scale circulation (LSC) due to the sidewall cooling. The density gradient induced by the sidewall cooling led to asymmetric descending and ascending flows and irregular LSC. Flow statistics departed from the canonical case, exhibiting lower buoyancy effects, represented by an effective Rayleigh number with effective height dependent on the distance from the lateral cooling. Velocity spectra show two scalings, $\varPhi \propto f^{-5/3}$ Kolmogorov (KO41) and $\varPhi \propto f^{-11/5}$ Bolgiano (BO59) in the larger $Ra$ ; the latter was not present in the smaller set-up. The BO59 scaling with sidewall cooling appears at higher frequencies than its canonical counterpart, suggesting weaker buoyancy effects. The LSC core motions allowed us to identify a characteristic time scale of the order of vortex turnover time associated with distinct vortex modes. The velocity spectra of the vortex core oscillation along its principal axis showed a scaling of $\varPhi _c \propto f^{-5/3}$ for the single sidewall cooling, which was dominant closer there. It did not occur in the canonical case, evidencing the modulation of LSC oscillation on the flow. 
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  3. Abstract

    Light initiates chloroplast biogenesis inArabidopsisby eliminating PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING transcription FACTORs (PIFs), which in turn de-represses nuclear photosynthesis genes, and synchronously, generates a nucleus-to-plastid (anterograde) signal that activates the plastid-encoded bacterial-type RNA polymerase (PEP) to transcribe plastid photosynthesis genes. However, the identity of the anterograde signal remains frustratingly elusive. The main challenge has been the difficulty to distinguish regulators from the plethora of necessary components for plastid transcription and other essential chloroplast functions, such as photosynthesis. Here, we show that the genome-wide induction of nuclear photosynthesis genes is insufficient to activate the PEP. PEP inhibition is imposed redundantly by multiple PIFs and requires PIF3’s activator activity. Among the nuclear-encoded components of the PEP holoenzyme, we identify four light-inducible, PIF-repressed sigma factors as anterograde signals. Together, our results elucidate that light-dependent inhibition of PIFs activates plastid photosynthesis genes via sigma factors as anterograde signals in parallel with the induction of nuclear photosynthesis genes.

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