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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2024
  2. Abstract: This article introduces a training simulator for electron beam alignment using Ronchigrams. The interactive web application,, is an advanced educational tool aimed at making scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) more accessible and open. For experienced microscopists, the tool offers on-hand quantification of simulated Ronchigrams and their resolution limits. 
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  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 16, 2024
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2024
  5. Abstract Twisted 2D materials form complex moiré structures that spontaneously reduce symmetry through picoscale deformation within a mesoscale lattice. We show twisted 2D materials contain a torsional displacement field comprised of three transverse periodic lattice distortions (PLD). The torsional PLD amplitude provides a single order parameter that concisely describes the structural complexity of twisted bilayer moirés. Moreover, the structure and amplitude of a torsional periodic lattice distortion is quantifiable using rudimentary electron diffraction methods sensitive to reciprocal space. In twisted bilayer graphene, the torsional PLD begins to form at angles below 3.89° and the amplitude reaches 8 pm around the magic angle of 1. 1°. At extremely low twist angles (e.g. below 0.25°) the amplitude increases and additional PLD harmonics arise to expand Bernal stacked domains separated by well defined solitonic boundaries. The torsional distortion field in twisted bilayer graphene is analytically described and has an upper bound of 22.6 pm. Similar torsional distortions are observed in twisted WS 2 , CrI 3 , and WSe 2 /MoSe 2 . 
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  6. Rutile compounds have exotic functional properties that can be applied for various electronic applications; however, the limited availability of epitaxial substrates has restricted the study of rutile thin films to a limited range of lattice parameters. Here, rutile GeO 2 is demonstrated as a new rutile substrate with lattice parameters of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. Rutile GeO 2 single crystals up to 4 mm in size are grown by the flux method. X-ray diffraction reveals high crystallinity with a rocking curve having a full width half-maximum of 0.0572°. After mechanical polishing, a surface roughness of less than 0.1 nm was obtained, and reflection high-energy electron diffraction shows a crystalline surface. Finally, epitaxial growth of (110)-oriented TiO 2 thin films on GeO 2 substrates was demonstrated using molecular beam epitaxy. Templated by rutile GeO 2 substrates, our findings open the possibility of stabilizing new rutile thin films and strain states for the tuning of physical properties. 
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  7. Abstract Compelling evidence suggests distinct correlated electron behavior may exist only in clean 2D materials such as 1T-TaS 2 . Unfortunately, experiment and theory suggest that extrinsic disorder in free standing 2D layers disrupts correlation-driven quantum behavior. Here we demonstrate a route to realizing fragile 2D quantum states through endotaxial polytype engineering of van der Waals materials. The true isolation of 2D charge density waves (CDWs) between metallic layers stabilizes commensurate long-range order and lifts the coupling between neighboring CDW layers to restore mirror symmetries via interlayer CDW twinning. The twinned-commensurate charge density wave (tC-CDW) reported herein has a single metal–insulator phase transition at ~350 K as measured structurally and electronically. Fast in-situ transmission electron microscopy and scanned nanobeam diffraction map the formation of tC-CDWs. This work introduces endotaxial polytype engineering of van der Waals materials to access latent 2D ground states distinct from conventional 2D fabrication. 
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