skip to main content


Search for: All records

Creators/Authors contains: "Hu, Xiaoling"

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. Overconfidence is a common issue for deep neural networks, limiting their deployment in real-world applications. To better estimate confidence, existing methods mostly focus on fully-supervised scenarios and rely on training labels. In this paper, we propose the first confidence estimation method for a semi-supervised setting, when most training labels are unavailable. We stipulate that even with limited training labels, we can still reasonably approximate the confidence of model on unlabeled samples by inspecting the prediction consistency through the training process. We use training consistency as a surrogate function and propose a consistency ranking loss for confidence estimation. On both image classification and segmentation tasks, our method achieves state-of-the-art performances in confidence estimation. Furthermore, we show the benefit of the proposed method through a downstream active learning task. 
    more » « less
  2. Besides per-pixel accuracy, topological correctness is also crucial for the segmentation of images with fine-scale structures, e.g., satellite images and biomedical images. In this paper, by leveraging the theory of digital topology, we identify pixels in an image that are critical for topology. By focusing on these critical pixels, we propose a new homotopy warping loss to train deep image segmentation networks for better topological accuracy. To efficiently identify these topologically critical pixels, we propose a new algorithm exploiting the distance transform. The proposed algorithm, as well as the loss function, naturally generalize to different topological structures in both 2D and 3D settings. The proposed loss function helps deep nets achieve better performance in terms of topology-aware metrics, outperforming state-of-the-art structure/topology-aware segmentation methods. 
    more » « less
  3. The adversarial risk of a machine learning model has been widely studied. Most previous works assume that the data lies in the whole ambient space. We propose to take a new angle and take the manifold assumption into consideration. Assuming data lies in a manifold, we investigate two new types of adversarial risk, the normal adversarial risk due to perturbation along normal direction, and the in-manifold adversarial risk due to perturbation within the manifold. We prove that the classic adversarial risk can be bounded from both sides using the normal and in-manifold adversarial risks. We also show with a surprisingly pessimistic case that the standard adversarial risk can be nonzero even when both normal and in-manifold risks are zero. We finalize the paper with empirical studies supporting our theoretical results. Our results suggest the possibility of improving the robustness of a classifier by only focusing on the normal adversarial risk. 
    more » « less
  4. Deep learning methods have achieved impressive performance for multi-class medical image segmentation. However, they are limited in their ability to encode topological interactions among different classes (e.g., containment and exclusion). These constraints naturally arise in biomedical images and can be crucial in improving segmentation quality. In this paper, we introduce a novel topological interaction module to encode the topological interactions into a deep neural network. The implementation is completely convolution-based and thus can be very efficient. This empowers us to incorporate the constraints into end-to-end training and enrich the feature representation of neural networks. The efficacy of the proposed method is validated on different types of interactions. We also demonstrate the generalizability of the method on both proprietary and public challenge datasets, in both 2D and 3D settings, as well as across different modalities such as CT and Ultrasound. Code is available at: https://github.com/TopoXLab/TopoInteraction. 
    more » « less
  5. The adversarial risk of a machine learning model has been widely studied. Most previous works assume that the data lies in the whole ambient space. We propose to take a new angle and take the manifold assumption into consideration. Assuming data lies in a manifold, we investigate two new types of adversarial risk, the normal adversarial risk due to perturbation along normal direction, and the in-manifold adversarial risk due to perturbation within the manifold. We prove that the classic adversarial risk can be bounded from both sides using the normal and in-manifold adversarial risks. We also show with a surprisingly pessimistic case that the standard adversarial risk can be nonzero even when both normal and in-manifold risks are zero. We finalize the paper with empirical studies supporting our theoretical results. Our results suggest the possibility of improving the robustness of a classifier by only focusing on the normal adversarial risk. 
    more » « less
  6. Structural accuracy of segmentation is important for fine-scale structures in biomedical images. We propose a novel Topological-Attention ConvLSTM Network (TACLNet) for 3D anisotropic image segmentation with high structural accuracy. We adopt ConvLSTM to leverage contextual information from adjacent slices while achieving high efficiency. We propose a Spatial Topological-Attention (STA) module to effectively transfer topologically critical information across slices. Furthermore, we propose an Iterative Topological-Attention (ITA) module that provides a more stable topologically critical map for segmentation. Quantitative and qualitative results show that our proposed method outperforms various baselines in terms of topology-aware evaluation metrics. 
    more » « less
  7. Segmentation algorithms are prone to make topological errors on fine-scale structures, e.g., broken connections. We propose a novel method that learns to segment with correct topology. In particular, we design a continuous-valued loss function that enforces a segmentation to have the same topology as the ground truth, i.e., having the same Betti number. The proposed topology-preserving loss function is differentiable and we incorporate it into end-to-end training of a deep neural network. Our method achieves much better performance on the Betti number error, which directly accounts for the topological correctness. It also performs superiorly on other topology-relevant metrics, e.g., the Adjusted Rand Index and the Variation of Information. We illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method on a broad spectrum of natural and biomedical datasets. 
    more » « less